Journal of Advanced Academic Research <p>A peer-reviewed six monthly journal published by the Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies, Babarmahal, Kathmandu.</p> en-US <p>Copyright © Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies (PhD Centre)</p><p>All rights reserved. Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions to reproduce copyright material from other sources. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion or copyright violations in the published papers. The views expressed by authors/researchers do not necessarily represent the viewpoint of the organisation.</p> (Dr Tatwa P Timsina) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 04 May 2023 08:56:11 +0000 OJS 60 Awareness and Preventive Measure on Dengue Fever among Community People in Kathmandu <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: More than one-third of the worldwide populations are affected by dengue fever. It is a public health problem. The objective of this study is to find out the awareness and preventive measure on dengue fever.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A Descriptive Cross-sectional research design was adopted to collect the data from 346 people by non-probability purposive sampling technique. A semi-structured questioner was developed based on intensive literature reviewed. The investigator herself after the approval of the IRC (Institutional review committee) TUIOM collected data. Before data collection, formal permission was obtained from the ward office of Chandragiri municipality-5. Written consent was obtained from each individual sampling unit before interview and observation. The findings were described in descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>All most all (95.4%) respondents were heard about dengue fever. All respondents answered dengue can be prevention, but 40.17% respondents were known it is viral infection, 29.19% belief it is communicable diseases transmitted by mosquito (48%), but the specific types of mosquito (Aedes aegypti), known only 36.7% of respondents. Majority of respondents (84.39%) known it is transmitted by mosquito to human being and below half (47.68%) of respondents known this type of mosquito is breeding in clean stagnation water and bite in day and dusk 67.63%. All most all respondents known about signs and symptoms of the dengue high fever (98.84%), headache (74.85), body ache (62.71%), retro orbital pain (36%), easily bleeding (32.26%) flushing (26.58%), sore throat (23.12 %), skin erythema (16.18%), and photophobia (15.89%), are early signs of dengue infection. Sixty-three percent respondents know the vomiting is late signs of dengue infection, lethargy (43.35 %), blood disorder (35.54%), weakness (30.92%), shock (22.54 %), and bleeding (21.38%), are late signs of dengue infection. Only 46.82% respondents know management of dengue infection, Below half (44.8%) respondents’ answered its prognosis is good, majority of respondents known about complication of dengue is bleeding and shock and 19% respondents known vaccine is not availed of dengue infection till date. In mosquito controls measures, highest number of respondents (66.5%) were aware on environment sanitation can control the mosquito; all most all respondents were aware on mosquito control is the only one solution of the dengue control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The awareness regarding dengue in the study participants are not sufficient and preventive practices are not satisfactory. Improvement of prevention practices for dengue transmission must be emphasized.</p> Jamuna Adhikari, Sita Oli, Apsara Pandey, Bhuwan Kumari Dangol Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Rural Road Improvement and Its Impact on Socioeconomic Development of Kaski District <p>Rural roads are the spinal cord whose connectivity to the settlements, cultivated lands and its improvement play an important role in sustainable socio-economic development of Kaski district as well as developing country like Nepal as a whole. The accessibility of rural road network is reflected in the field of education, health, employment, agriculture, marketing, tourism as well as in the changing pattern of daily livelihood of rural community in Kaski district. There is some level of achievement of fair weather road but is not sufficient regarding to accessibility to remote settlement and productivity. They need to be prioritizing for improvement to all weather road based on productivity. Improvement like upgrading, opening of track, culvert also seems to be necessary which too reflect positive impact on socio-economic development of Kaski district. This paper tries to review 19 district roads under government planning and emphasis for prioritization for upgrading (earthen, gravel, bitumen) based on cost-benefit ratio analysis. Indicators are taken basically on the basis of agriculture, school, health facility, access to market, access to district centre, water supply in the area, road condition. The average number of points of entire groups is calculated with the help of weights and benefits. Cost/Benefit ratio analysed for each rural road are then ranked as per ascending order of it. This will conclude remarks for the improvement of rural road network for sustainable socio-economic development of Kaski district whose satisfactory results are still to be obtained.</p> Prakash Baral Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Regarding Stoma Care among Nursing Students <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stoma and ostomy are Greek terms meaning mouth or opening done to treat several benign and malignant intestinal conditions, due to a change in bowel habits, anatomically modified by surgical creation of an opening in the abdominal wall involving parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Formation of colostomy is sometimes necessary and at other times mandatory. The colostomy patients wear a disposable pouch to collect the stool. A colostomy may be temporary or permanent, depending on the medical reason for the surgery.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the knowledge of stoma care among PBN 3rd year student nurses and to identify the association of knowledge with the selected demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross- sectional descriptive study was conducted among 39 student nurses of PBN 3rd year studying at the Hope International College with the objective to assess the knowledge regarding care of stoma among student nurses. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used in this study and self-administered structured questionnaire was used in this study. The study was done in a private college of Lalitpur (Hope International College).</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: In this study 7.7% of the total student nurses had good knowledge, 89.7% student nurses had average knowledge and 2.6% student nurses had poor knowledge. Also found that there is no association between knowledge and other variables like age, experience, training, in-service education, care and interest as it showed no significance statistically.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that majority of student nurses had average knowledge regarding stoma care.</p> Rozeena Maharjan, Bhawana Bhandari, Anil Babu Ojha, Kopila Mugranti, Jyanendra Jha, Uma Kafle, Anamika Dangol, Rupesh Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge regarding Hypothyroidism among Community People of Kavre <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is unable to produce enough thyroid hormone. Thyroid dysfunction is one of the concern public health problem among the Nepalese population. It has been estimated that 0.2% of the deaths in Nepal result from endocrine disorders, among which Iodine deficiency has been a major cause. Therefore, this study helps to assess knowledge level regarding hypothyroidism among community people of Banepa-8, Kavre.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and to identify the association of knowledge with the selected demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 140 respondents of Banepa-8, Kavre district on April 2021. All the adult people of age 25-55 years were included in the study. Structured knowledge questionnaire was used after validity and reliability. Data was collected by interview</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Among the 140 participants, statistical analysis showed that more than half of the respondents 46(37.9%) had low knowledge, majority 87(62.1%) of respondents had average knowledge and 7 (5%) had high knowledge regarding Hypothyroidism. Age, Gender, education, ethnicity, occupation, family history and marital status had no significant effect on the knowledge level of the respondents at (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Knowledge regarding hypothyroidism was found to be average among majority of people in Banepa-8, Kavre. There was no significant association with the knowledge and selected demographic variables.</p> Riya Pote, Bhawana Bhandari, Jyanendra Jha, Rupesh Mishra, Bhim Maya Yakha, Anamika Dangol, Moushami Giri, Anil Babu Ojha Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Infertility and Anxiety among Infertile Women at IVF Treatment Centre, Lalitpur <p><strong>Background: </strong>Infertility is being a tangible problem in our society. Infertility is failure to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse in the absence of known reproductive pathology. Infertility and its treatment related process both can create psychological and economic crisis among the women who are receiving its treatment therefore it may result in variant level of anxiety in infertile women. The main objective of this study is to determine the level of anxiety among infertile women.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>All together 100 sample were taken for the study by adopting non-probability purposive sampling technique. Data was collected through direct interview by using demographic and structured questionnaire was used. Beck Anxiety Inventory scale was used as structured questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Out of 100 respondents, more than half 56 % of the respondents were between ages 26-35 Years age, 28% of respondents were house makers by occupation, majority of respondents 71% were working 12 hours per day. Near to half 47.6 % respondent had the Hypothyroidism. Fifty two percent of&nbsp; respondent's were from 4-6 years of marriage duration followed by duration of infertility were 56 % since 3 years and 45 % are taking infertility treatment from about 1 years. Majority of respondents (59%) has low anxiety level followed by moderate anxiety (35%) and severe anxiety (6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Anxiety is common in infertile women. Among the respondents, all of the participants had developed the features of anxiety but in very low level. So association could not be assessed between the socio-demographic variables and level of anxiety.</p> Reena Khyaju, Bhim Maya Yakha, Durga Kumari Sah, Anamika Dangol, Sita Kumari Pandey, Bhawana Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship between the Nutritional Status and Intelligence among the Children in Selected Schools, Bengaluru <p><strong>Background of the study Nutritional</strong> status is the condition of health of the individual as influenced by the utilization of the nutrient. It is concerned primarily with the part played the nutrients in body growth, development and maintenance. Good nutritional status means, maintaining a nutritional status that enables us to grow well and enjoy good health. Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A Quantitative approach was used to assess the relationship between nutritional status and intelligence among the children. The research design adopted for the study was Non-experimental correlation research design. Sample of 60 schoolchildren were selected for the study using Probability –simple random sampling technique (lottery method). The modified conceptual framework for the present study was based on Fishbone model.</p> <p>Anthropometry measurement and cultural fair nonverbal intelligence test was used to collect the data from the study. The experts validated the tool for data collection and the reliability was established using test re-test method using Karl Pearson’s formula. Pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the study following which the main study was done. Ethical and legal parameters were taken into consideration throughout the study. The main study was conducted Aryan presidency school, Nagarbhavi Bengaluru. Among children within age group 8-10.The data collected were analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The finding of the study showed that the finding of the study revealed that, the assessment of the nutritional by weight 51.5% (31) were in normal range, 21.7% (13) were mildly impaired, 5.0 % (3) were moderately impaired range and 21.7% (13) were severely impaired. The assessments of the nutritional status by height 73.3% (44) were in normal range, 16.7% (10) were mildly impaired, 10.0% (6) were moderately impaired range and no one were severely impaired. The assessment of the nutritional status by MUAC 76.7% (46) were in normal range, 23.3% (14) were Stunted and no one were Stunted and wasted. Intelligence level of the school children 10.0% (6) were very superior, 3.3% were superior, 16.7% (10) were high average, 56.7% (34) were average, 10.0% were low average, 1.7% (1) was borderline and 1.7% (1) was extremely low. The finding of intelligence test -1, the range was 1-12, Mean was 7.6, Standard deviation was 2.59 and Mean percentage was 63.33. With regard to test -2, the Range was 4-13, Mean was 7.8, SD was 2.31 and Mean percentage was 55.7. With regard to test-3 Range was 1-11, Mean was 6.8, SD was 2.34 and Mean percentage was 56.7. With regards to test -4 the Range was 0-8, Mean was 2.98, SD was 1.87 and Mean percentage was 37.3. The overall score of the intelligence Range was 13-39, Mean was 25.2, SD was 6.23 and Mean percentage was 54.8. Correlation between height and intelligence (r=0.344), weight and intelligence (r=0.397) and MUAC and intelligence (r=0.352) among the children. Hence, there is a positive correlation between the nutritional status and intelligent among children. Chi square test was used to find the association between nutritional status and intelligence among the school children with their selected demographic variables .the result of the Chi square analysis indicated that there is a significant association between the nutritional status and intelligence among school children with their selected demographic variables, such as nutritional status by weight and demographic variables among the school children and it was significant associate of type of family and Mother’s occupation, nutritional status by height and demographic variables among the school children and it was found significant associate of mother’s education, nutritional status by MUAC and demographic variables among the school children and it was significant associate of mother’s occupation, and intelligence level and demographic variables among the school children and it was significant associate of class studying.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study attempted to assess the relationship between the nutritional status and intelligence among the children and found that positive relationship was between the nutritional status and intelligence among the children within age 8-10 years.</p> Satya Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Practice Regarding Newborn Care among Postnatal Mother in Selected Community, Bhaktapur <p>Newborn care is a set of comprehensive recommendations designed by World Health Organization (WHO) to improve health of the Newborn through intervention before conception, during pregnancy, soon after birth and in postnatal period. It includes Thermoregulations, Clean delivery, Cord care, Eye care, Newborn feeding, Newborn danger sign, Kangaroo mother care, etc.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the knowledge and Practice Regarding Newborn care at home among postnatal mother in selected Community Ward no.5.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross sectional study design was conducted among 50 postnatal mothers to gather information on the Knowledge and Practices regarding Newborn care at home among Postnatal Mother in Selected Community Ward no.5, Madhyapur, Thimi. Non-probability purposive sampling techniques was used in this study. A Likert scale was prepared. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Science Software) Version 20 and various tests frequency and percentage and the findings were presented in tables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study depicts that, 48(96%) had adequate knowledge regarding Newborn care whereas 2(4%) had inadequate knowledge regarding Newborn Care. Thus, 50(100%) of respondents had good practice regarding Newborn Care.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study shows, postnatal mother had adequate knowledge and good practices regarding thermoregulation, eye care, newborn feeding, newborn danger sign, kangaroo mother care and poor awareness in cord care. While comparing knowledge with practice regarding newborn care, practice looks better in many areas.</p> Anamika Dangol, Ruja Shrestha, Bhawana Bhandari, Bhim Maya Yakha, Sita Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Perceptions of Corona Virus Disease (COVID 19) among Nurses Working at Teaching Hospital, Banke, Nepal <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong> Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is an infectious, pandemic disease affecting many countries globally. The outbreak of a new virus occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The objective of the study was to find out the knowledge and perceptions of nurses on COVID-19 in a teaching hospital, Banke, Nepal. A quantity web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted at Nepalgunj Medical College, Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur Banke, which was selected purposively.&nbsp; All the nurses working in different departments who agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. &nbsp;A self-administered questionnaire in google form was developed by the researchers Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong></em> The study shows that more than half (56%) of the nurses had an adequate level of knowledge and the majority (97%) of nurses had a satisfactory perception regarding COVID-19. There was a statistically significant association between the age of the nurses with the level of knowledge regarding COVID-19 (<em>P</em>=0.009). Those nurses who were up to 25 years had 3.166 times inadequate knowledge than those above 25 years (p=0.009; OR= 3.166; CI=1.315-7.621). There was no statistically significant association between socio-demographic characteristics with the perception of nurses regarding COVID-19.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong> The findings conclude that more than half of the nurses had an adequate level of knowledge regarding COVID-19 and the majority of nurses had satisfactory perception regarding COVID-19.&nbsp; The global threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it is critical for improving&nbsp; &nbsp;the knowledge and perceptions of the nurses in this pandemic situation.</p> Sunita Acharya, Shanti Giri, Asha Panth Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000