International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health <p>IJOSH is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal (OHSSN).</a></p> <p>International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health (IJOSH) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal covering occupational health and safety-related disciplines (occupational health, safety, and workers' health, including homemakers and students). IJOSH is published quarterly. It provides occupational health physicians, doctors, nurses, engineers, ergonomists, and a wide range of occupational hygiene, health, and safety professionals with a dependable single source of proficiently written legal, practical, and management occupational health information. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p>IJOSH is indexed in the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a>, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica dataBASE), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCI Journal</a>, <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago,</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>.</p> Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal en-US International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 2738-9707 Chromium toxicity among leather industry workers in Kolkata-A pilot Study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Chromium (Cr) exposure is known to cause various health issues such as cancer, dermatitis, respiratory problems, etc. The recent exposure of Cr can be determined by analysis of Cr either in blood/urine/plasma, Cr (III) ions cannot permeate through cell membranes of red blood cells (RBC) because their ionic radii are bigger as compared to Cr (VI), and hence Cr in RBC is an indicator for exposure to Cr (VI) ions. The purpose of this study was to investigate chromium exposure, hygienic habits and the occurrence of dermatological problems with leather industry workers in Kolkata.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 68 leather industry workers with minimum work exposure of five years and aged between 18-60 years were recruited for this study. The study protocol included a questionnaire and analysis of Cr in blood and urine samples by GF-AAS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: All values were under the Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of 25µg /L at the end of the shift of a five-day work week recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (AcGIH). 15.2% of subjects suffered from dermatological problems at least once in the last year during work in the leather industry.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It was found that leather industry workers were not using personal protective equipment and it must be promoted to them for occupational health and safety.</p> Pawan Kumar Maurya Amit Chakrabarti Asim Saha Copyright (c) 2023 Pawan Kumar Maurya, Amit Chakrabarti, Asim Saha 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 140 145 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.46612 Evidence Based Treatment Strategies For “Text Neck Syndrome ”: A Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Text neck syndrome is an overuse condition or repetitive stress injury in which the cervical spine is flexed forward or down for extensive stretch while gazing at the smartphone or other electronic device. Individual with this Syndrome usually present with neck pain, restricted cervical range of motion, reduced muscle strength and endurance, altered cervical joint position error along with postural alterations like forward head posture and rounded shoulders as well.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We performed a systematic review on the Text Neck Syndrome and discussed the evidence-based studies. For the purpose of the review, an electronic search for relevant articles using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Pedro, Research Gate, Google Scholar and CINHAL databases up to March 2022 was done wherein MeSH search terms and free words were used. In addition to the electronic search, articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Articles were selected based on authors expertise, self- knowledge and reflective practice.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The current study included 17 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria suggesting that Text Neck Syndrome is an upcoming concern and requires attention .The above reviewed studies provided evidence that physiotherapy as a mode of treatment is definitely effective in treating the Text Neck Syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This review spoke about the text neck syndrome and its rising consequences and also about the treatment approaches available in treating and minimizing the symptoms of this syndrome. Further research is required over what more preventive strategies can be adopted in case of the Text neck syndrome.</p> Sandeep Shinde Radha Bhende Copyright (c) 2023 Sandeep Shinde, Radha Bhende 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 245 257 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.48679 The impact of leadership on the psychosocial safety climate of organizations: A scoping review of the international literature <p>Growing evidence suggests that work-related psychological injuries are a concern worldwide. While previous efforts to address psychological injuries mainly focused on the individual level of analysis, psychosocial safety climate (PSC) theory emphasizes the analysis and prevention of psychological injuries at the organizational level. While there is abundant evidence of the impact of leadership on other climate constructs, scant attention has been paid to the impact of leadership on PSC. This study is a scoping review of the extant literature to determine the state of the discipline in relation to the impact of leadership on the psychosocial safety climate of organizations. Three databases were searched, supplemented by a pearling exercise and Google Scholar searches, which yielded 14 studies that met selection criteria. Our study shows that while much work has been done in relation to the behavior of managers and organizational infrastructure to yield high levels of PSC, there is a dearth of studies on the impact of specific leadership styles on the PSC of organizations. We recommend further studies of leadership, especially the impact of post-heroic leadership styles, on the psychosocial safety climate of workplaces.</p> Eugene Laloo Robyn Coman Natalia Hanley Shahnaz Bakand Copyright (c) 2023 Eugene Laloo, Dr. Robyn Coman, Dr. Natalia Hanley , Dr. Shahnaz Bakand 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 258 271 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.43294 Chemical Safety Knowledge Assessment of Academic Researchers from Brazil during Covid-19 Pandemic <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Laboratories are inextricably dangerous work environments, as fatal incidents are reported in both academic and non-academic environments worldwide, where poor safety culture has been recognized as the major accident contributor. Workers can be exposed to chemical, biological, physical, or radioactive hazards, in addition to musculoskeletal stresses. In Brazil, hundreds of thousands of workers are employed in laboratories, either in private or public institutions. Although laboratory safety can be governed by local, state, or federal regulations, learning how to identify common laboratory hazards is the first step to preventing accidents in the lab environment.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study aimed to assess the degree level of safety culture in an academic population of research laboratories, located in the largest city in Brazil, and their compliance with occupational safety regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak. This study was carried out between October and November 2020. The results were obtained from the standardized questionnaire used to assess 98 researchers working in laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of respondents (95%) reported being exposed to more than two risks, simultaneously. About two-thirds (66%) of them were not fully aware of the laboratory's risk map. About half of the researchers (50%) were lacking in safety culture, and 57%and 43% were preoccupied with chemical and non-chemical hazards, respectively. Personal protective equipment (PPE) during laboratory work was used by most researchers, but 75% of researchers claim that security awareness learning should be a high priority for admission to laboratories. About 39% of researchers agreed that awareness of security must be improved in their laboratories</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The survey proves the lack of information and attitudes about chemical safety, especially among less experienced researchers, even if they use personal protective equipment when necessary.</p> Walter dos Reis Pedreira Filho Julia Sapienza Passos Nadia Ruscic Maria Luiza da Silva da Silva Lucilena Rebelo Monteiro Soraia Katia Pereira Costa Copyright (c) 2023 Walter dos Reis Pedreira Filho, Julia Sapienza Passos, Nadia Ruscic, Maria Luiza da Silva, Lucilena Rebelo Monteiro, Soraia Katia Pereira Costa 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 146 154 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.48904 COVID-19 related symptoms and vaccination usage among informal waste workers of Kathmandu, Nepal <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>About 56% of total population of Nepal have been fully immunized against COVID. But still foreign nationals and Informal Waste Workers (IWWs) outside of Nepal are struggling to get COVID vaccines. This study was intended to study the COVID-19 symptoms among IWWs of Kathmandu and the usage of vaccines by them.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A Cross-sectional study was conducted among 107 IWWs of Kathmandu Valley from Balku, Sanepa, Kalimati and Teku areas. A convenience sampling method was used to find the respondents based on their willingness to participate in the study. Face-to-face interview was conducted using structured questionnaire to collect data from IWWs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 53.3% males and 46.7% females participated in this study. Despite of majority of waste workers facing COVID related symptoms, only 19.6% of waste workers had done COVID test. Around 77.6% of waste workers hadn’t still taken COVID vaccine with majority (93.9 %) of them belonging to India.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The majority of IWWs of Kathmandu are afraid to take COVID vaccine. Despite of having COVID related symptoms, IWWs haven’t gone for COVID test. Though interested, the IWWs needs identity cards for vaccination which counts less number of waste workers being vaccinated.</p> Ashish Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Ashish Khanal 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 155 162 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.43929 Descriptive Epidemiology of Occupational Injuries among urban construction workers – an observation from Eastern India <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Bhubaneswar, Odisha, is seeing a boom in construction activities, with workers from remote areas coming for work. Poverty, and illiteracy, coupled with employment and regular payments make them oblivious to unsafe working conditions. Long hours of heavy work in bad postures affect their musculoskeletal system leading to work-related musculoskeletal injuries. This study aimed to understand the epidemiology of the above injuries among the construction workers in Bhubaneswar</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>It was a work-site-based multistage cross-sectional study, where the sites engaging &gt;=15 workers were selected randomly. A total of 520 workers (consented, &gt;=21 years of age, and in this profession for at least 3 years) were recruited randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the study participants with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire focusing on sociodemographic profiles and relevant epidemiological variables related to occupational injury of urban construction workers. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Over 95% of the participants were heavy workers, 23.1% were laborers, 28.1% had &lt; 10 years of experience, and 72.3% were satisfied with their job. A little more than 19% had work-related injuries in the last 3 months. Age, gender, alcohol abuse, better education, lesser work experience, skilled work and job dissatisfaction were found to be statistically significant when associated with workplace injuries. Multivariate analysis revealed only age and lesser duration of working experience in the construction industry were associated with an increase in occupational injuries.</p> <p><strong>C</strong><strong>onclusion</strong></p> <p>This study found that younger age, less work experience, male gender, use of alcohol, nature of work and lack of job satisfaction, and a few other factors were associated with work-related injuries. Often their occupational health and injuries get overlooked. Employers should be primarily responsible for their health, safety, and well-being. Suitable legislation and proper implementation would probably facilitate this.</p> Bidisa Sarkar Sonali Kar Ipsa Mohapatra Kamalesh Sarkar Copyright (c) 2023 Bidisa Sarkar, Sonali Kar, Ipsa Mohapatra, Kamalesh Sarkar 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 163 171 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.48712 Determining low back pain factors and effects on daily activities in operating room personnel in Türkiye <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Low back pain is a common problem among operating room personnel. The study was performed to determine low back pain (LBP) factors and effects on daily activities in operating room personnel.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The descriptive study was conducted in January 2018 in Ankara, Türkiye. The study sample consisted of 210 operating room personnel. Data from the study were collected using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Low Back Health Question Form.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The majority of operating room personnel had LBP. The mean disability score of the Operating room personnel was 9.69±6.49. A total of 8.1% of operating room personnel had severe disabilities. The disability score of the operating room personnel was higher in women, nurses, and personnel who worked over 8 hours a day, those who had any level of stress, and those who lifted patients without assistance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: LBP remains an important problem in operating room staff and negatively affects daily activities. Considering the disability caused by LBP, to prevent LBP, developing comprehensive programs with hospital management including exercise, coping with stress, smoking cessation, and regulation of the working environment and conditions is suggested.</p> Habibe GÜLEÇ Azize Karahan Copyright (c) 2023 Habibe GÜLEÇ, Azize Karahan 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 172 179 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.48956 Effect of Lifting Weight, Height and Asymmetry on Biomechanical Loading during Manual Lifting <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>In India, physical manual activities in asymmetrical postures overtax the human musculoskeletal system, which may exceed workers' physical limitations. Thus the purpose of this study was to examine the physical stresses experienced by the subject, based on subjective and biomechanical loading estimates while lifting weights to various heights, in an asymmetric direction and propose the safe limit for manual lifting.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A laboratory experiment was conducted utilizing twelve male subjects in the age group of 20 to 25 years who lifted 5 different weights between 10 to 20 kg from below the knee to various lifting heights (below the knee to ear level). The lifting task was performed in three asymmetric angles (45, 90, and 135-degree) using free-style lifting techniques. An ANOVA technique was used to analyze the influence of three parameters (Lifting weight, lifting height and asymmetric angle) on two responses; subjective estimates and biomechanical loading. The subjective estimate was obtained using workload assessment by body discomfort chart. The biomechanical loading (loading rate) was estimated from ground reaction force data, obtained from the force plate.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Both the responses; subjective estimates and biomechanical loading followed a consistent pattern in predicting physical stress. The result revealed that lifting weights with higher destination heights and asymmetry angles increased the physiological workload and discomfort. Experiments have shown that the loading rate is reduced by 8 to 10% for each increase in the 45-degree angle of asymmetry.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In general, safe lifting of 15 kg weight up to ear level and 15 kg weight up to shoulder level are recommended for 45- and 90-degree asymmetry respectively to prevent any chronic injuries. A maximum of 12.5 kg lifting weight up to shoulder level is also proposed. </p> Anurag Vijaywargiya Mahesh K. Bhiwapurkar A Thirugnanam Copyright (c) 2023 Anurag Vijaywargiya, Mahesh K. Bhiwapurkar, A. Thirugnanam 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 180 189 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.43180 Effects of emotional labor on musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapists in Seoul <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Health care workers, including physical therapists, have some of the most important roles in the health care system as shown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical therapists encounter emotionally and physically vulnerable patients, experience emotional labor, and are exposed to conditions that can lead to job stress and musculoskeletal disorders. We aimed to examine the relationship between physical therapists’ emotional labor and its effect on perceived job stress and risk of musculoskeletal disorders.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We conducted a 30-day survey among 230 physical therapists working in various settings from October 2 to November 1, 2019. Questionnaires, including questions on musculoskeletal symptoms, perceived job stress, and emotional labor, were administered to the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The physical therapist's surface behavior affected the body burden. Job burnout experienced by physical therapists had an effect on their interpersonal relationships. The physical therapist's emotional law affects the degree of compensation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: To prevent the long-term consequences of work-related strain, physical therapists should receive support in terms of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and developing effective methods of communication with patients. Encouragement of activities for psychological rejuvenation with colleagues with whom they can share emotional difficulties is also desirable. It is also necessary to establish a communication channel that can directly convey the grievances of physical therapists to hospitals.</p> Jae Kwang Choi Yeon Hwan Lee Copyright (c) 2023 Jae Kwang Choi, Yeon Hwan Lee 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 190 198 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.44002 Evaluation of the knowledge of sun exposure and sun protective measures in healthcare workers <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a great impact on human life. The sun has always played an important role in Asian culture, so much so, that it is often prayed to as a God. Prolonged sun exposure can cause extensive and chronic harmful effects. Healthcare personnel is supposed to have good knowledge regarding sun protection as they play a key role in society disseminating knowledge to the general public. There are limited data regarding the knowledge of sun protection and sunscreen practice among health care workers.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out from June to October 2020 on healthcare workers (medical staff) in Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. A questionnaire was distributed to the target study population without disturbing or hampering the healthcare worker’s duty.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of a total of 264 participants in the study, 84 (31.8%) were male and 180 (68.2%) were female. The knowledge of proper terminology for SPF (Sun Protection Factor) was noted in 196 (74.2%) and 57 (21.6%) agreed that the value of SPF was related to age. No significant difference was noted regarding knowledge about the time of sun exposure for Vitamin D synthesis. No significant differences were found in practices of sunscreen use for purposes of fairness, or prevention of tanning, wrinkle, mole, and skin cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A higher level of education was associated with better knowledge and proper abiding practices regarding sunscreen use. As healthcare workers play a key role in distributing information in society, they should be targeted in education campaigns regarding sun exposure and sun protection measures; with these efforts focused more on nurses and medical officers.</p> Eliz Aryal Prashanna Raj Shrestha Sujan Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Eliz Aryal, Shrestha PR, Gautam S 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 199 205 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.43305 Prevalence of Occupational Injuries in selected Coir Industries in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The coir industry processes fibers from coconuts and is important for a high number of people in Sri Lanka. Coir workers handle several dangerous machines. This project has studied occupational injuries among coir workers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was performed in six medium-sized coir industries in Sri Lanka, each with 15-100 employees. The workers who were present at work on the two days the researchers visited the respective industries (128 of total 214 workers) were interviewed on socio-demographics, work tasks they normally perform and occupational injuries they had experienced in the last three months. Independent T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to analyze for differences between groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the 128 interviewed workers was 45 years and 53.9% were male. Totally 34 (26.6%) of the workers had experienced at least one injury each during the past three months. Women reported significantly more injuries than men (38.9% vs 15.9%). The workers operating machines reported significantly more injuries than workers who performed other types of work (42.3% vs 22.0%). Slipped, tripped, and fall (64%) were the most common events of injury seen among the injured workers followed by cuts by sharp objects or machines (20%). The most common type of injury among the workers reporting injuries were cuts and bruises (50%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> More than one-fourth of the workers reported to have been injured in the last three months, indicating a high injury risk. This raises concerns and highlights the need for preventative measures to minimize risks.</p> Anindita Tasnim Onni Asela Kumar Perera Dodanwalage Magne Bråtveit Bente Elisabeth Moen Copyright (c) 2023 Anindita Tasnim Onni, Asela Kumar Perera Dodanwalage , Magne Bråtveit, Bente Elisabeth Moen 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 206 213 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.48717 Role of the construction project team in health and safety management: a study of construction projects in the Wa Municipality of Ghana <p><strong>ntroduction</strong>: The building industry is vulnerable to a variety of hazards, many of which pose a significant risk to workers' health and safety. This research aimed to examine the role of the construction project team in health and safety management in the Wa Municipality of Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study used a descriptive survey with a quantitative approach as the research design. The study's population consisted of 52 construction project sites from the municipal. All 52 construction project sites in the area were chosen for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summaries information from respondents.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study revealed that monitoring construction sites and ensuring the companies comply with state regulations on health and safety in the workplace obtained the highest ranking, ensuring workers comply with safety and health procedures and use personal protective equipment at construction project sites were ranked as the topmost roles of the construction project team, poor culture and attitudes existed amongst construction workers, supervisors, and top management of companies toward health and safety.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It revealed a lack of health and safety management at all levels of the construction chain. First, there is poor culture and attitudes of construction workers, supervisors, and companies toward health and safety. Secondly, ineffective operation of safety regulation, inefficient institutional frameworks responsible for governing construction activities, and a lack of attention to safety management by main contractors/team. Despite the institutional provisions for construction safety in Ghana (the Labor Act, 2003 and the Factories, Offices, and Shops Act, 1970), there is no compliance with these Acts during construction.</p> Dominic Naaemwan Aasonaa Copyright (c) 2023 Dominic Naaemwan Aasonaa 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 214 222 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.37445 Scientific Support of Occupational Risk Management Decisions in Industrial Sectors in Case of Uncertainty <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>One of the most important steps in risk assessment is the selection of assessment methods. Traditionally, when developing measures to reduce the level of occupational morbidity and industrial injuries, the results of an analysis of the causes, types of events and other factors that led to accidents are used. But such an approach does not meet modern requirements. For an adequate assessment of occupational risks, it is necessary to have objective data from different time periods: the onset of traumatic events in the past, the current state of threats to life and health of people, and the future state of threats in industrial sectors.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Mathematical modeling remains the main means of scientific support for occupational risk management. The Elmeri system was chosen for occupational risk assessment in this study, which can be easily and quickly used in any industry and in enterprises of all sizes. A critical analysis of various approaches to managing occupational risks in enterprises was applied to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches. The method of generalizing the most effective approaches to occupational risk management was applied to develop the algorithm of occupational risk management decisions in industrial sectors in case of uncertainty.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>An occupational risk management algorithm has been developed to substantiate management decisions on planning measures to reduce risk, the implementation of which ensures the effectiveness of measures aimed at reducing risk. Research has shown that if the decision-making situation is characterized by conditions of uncertainty (it is impossible to obtain mathematical models of acceptable accuracy), the assessment of the predictive values of occupational risk is carried out exclusively by an expert. Thus, the occupational risk indicator used at the final stage of planning activities determines the degree of achievement of the result of solving the task.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It has been established that in conditions of uncertainty (lack of necessary data or available data are incomplete or unreliable), experts involved in solving the problem of risk management use their own knowledge and experience in solving similar problems. As a promising direction for further research, it should be noted the development of a methodology for a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of operational management decisions for planning and implementing measures to reduce risks</p> Oleg Kruzhilko Alaa El Din Mahmoud Volodymyr Maystrenko Natalia Volodchenkova Oleksiy Polukarov Volodymyr Sydorenko Andrii Pruskyi Oleksandr Arlamov Copyright (c) 2023 Oleg Kruzhilko, Alaa El Din Mahmoud, Volodymyr Maystrenko, Natalia Volodchenkova, Oleksiy Polukarov, Volodymyr Sydorenko, Andrii Pruskyi, Oleksandr Arlamov 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 223 233 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.48456 Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Mental Health among Nursing Personnel in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic in West Bengal, India <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: COVID-19 outbreak created enormous turmoil all over the world. The health sectors were overburdened with critically ill COVID-19 patients. The load on the health sector burdened and fatigued the health care workers especially the nursing personnel as they were in direct contact with the symptomatic patients predominantly. In each wave, the patients’ number surged and overwhelmed the health sectors. In this study, the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) discomfort and mental exhaustion among the nursing personnel were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The duration of the study was from the end of September 2021 to March 2022. The factors that sourced the discomfort symptoms amidst and the interludes of the later waves of COVID-19 and their interrelations were also assessed here. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire and the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) were used in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 73.9% of subjects (N=88) reported the presence of WMSDs symptoms in at least one body region in the last one-year time period with the most prevalent discomfort in the lower back region (42%), followed by discomforts in the ankles, neck, and knee. The mean value of the total score of CSS was 33.74(±19.90) with high mean values in compulsive checking, danger, and contamination subscales. This study showed significant positive correlations between the presence of WMSD symptoms with BMI (r<sub>s</sub>=0.266, <em>p</em>= 0.012) and CSS total scores (r<sub>s</sub>=0.216, <em>p</em>=0.043).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Large percentages of reports on musculoskeletal discomforts with reports on mental enervation related to COVID-19 indicated weariness of the nursing personnel. The physical exhaustion due to overloading work and the interplay between mental stress and WMSDs revealed pivotal issues of concern. </p> Upasana Chowdhury Tamal Das Sahana Mazumder Somnath Gangopadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Upasana Chowdhury, Tamal Das, Sahana Mazumder, Somnath Gangopadhyay 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 13 2 234 244 10.3126/ijosh.v13i2.47775