International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> en-US (Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 12:35:05 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluating Potential Importance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. -Cucurbitaceae): A Brief Review <p>Cucumber is a one of healthy fruit which have many health benefits of cucurbitaceae family. It maintains blood pressure, regulates hydration, controls sugar, and soothes the skin, helpful in digestion. It also helps to weight loss by reducing fat. Cucumber also contains fibre, potassium, manganese, magnesium and vitamin K, C, A. Cucumber can also have hydrated and antimicrobial properties, and detoxify the body and, prevent cancer and other many bone disease. Economically cucumbers are very important, as cucumbers contain high nutritional, medicinal as well as health beneficial values. In present presentation going to discussed about the economic importance of cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em>).</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 12-15.</em></p> Pushpa Karna Mallick Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Physico-Chemical Parameters of Drinking Water in Majkhola, Tansen, Palpa <p>Water is an important component of the ecosystem that sustains life on the planet since water provides vital components for human health. To gain a precise picture of water quality, studies of the components found in the water are critical. Three physical and six chemical criteria were examined to assess the quality assurance of drinking water of Majkhola. All tests were carried out according to the protocols outlined in the standard methodology. For this investigation, four water samples were collected in the morning from different areas of Majhkhola throughout three months, from December 2018 to February 2019. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water quality parameters. pH (6.85 – 8.5), Conductivity (72.3 – 79.9 µm/s), Alkalinity (37.84 – 39.27 mg/L), Chloride (2.509 – 3.76 mg/L), Dissolves Oxygen (DO) (0.8 – 1.3 mg/L), Hardness (60 – 72 mg/L) and Total Dissolved Solids (100 – 150 mg/L) of water samples values lay within the permissible guideline values as prescribed by WHO and national standard but temperature (18 – 21°C) of water samples crossed the WHO permissible value and there is no prescribed limit of free CO<sub>2</sub> (2 – 4) mg/L) in WHO. These metrics' values in the research area suggest that water samples are within normal or acceptable limits. As a result, water is safe to drink and meets local and international physical and chemical criteria to preserve excellent health. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the current study's findings are highly encouraging and reflect the health status of Majkhola's water area.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 60-70.</em></p> Deepa Karki, Yub Narayan Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Current Trends in Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Production <p>In view of crude oil prices, and its environmental issues, utilization of sustainable renewable alternative energies such as biofuels is rapidly progressing in many countries. The increasing global energy demand and depleting fossils fuels sources has led to search alternative clean and renewable fuels. One of the best alternatives to the gasoline is lignocellulosic bioethanol. Recent researches on lignocellulosic bioethanol focuses on advancement of pretreatment techniques for improved sugar yields and decreased inhibitors production. Pretreatment technique with no or less use of chemicals and cost effectiveness is the main purpose of most of the researches. Biological pretreatment techniques produce less fermentation inhibitors than chemical pretreatments. In order to cope with fermentation inhibitors different strategies can be adopted during pretreatment processes. In the course of time, advancements in production process over separate hydrolysis and fermentation have been introduced. Simultaneous saccharification and co/fermentation; and consolidated bioprocessing for bioethanol production are gaining popularity among researchers.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 1-11.</em></p> Pradip Dhungana, Bikram Prajapati, Sujeeta Maharjan, Jarina Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2) Stress on DNA, RNA and Enzymes Vigna mungo L. Seedlings <p>At elevated concentrations all heavy metals are potentially toxic. Effects of Mercuric Chloride on the morphological parameters such as DNA, RNA and Enzymes were analysed during investigation on 10<sup>th</sup> day in seedlings of <em>Vigna mungo</em> L., All parameters exhibited reduced trend with increase in HgCl<sub>2</sub> concentrations when compared to control plants but the enzyme activities increased. This indicates that, the seedlings are in the process of increase in tolerance to HgCl<sub>2</sub> treatment. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 16-20.</em></p> Mamata Mohapatra Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Improved Amperometric Lactose Biosensor Based on Enzyme Nanoparticles <p>A desolvation method was used for the synthesis of β-galactosidase (β-GAL) and glucose oxidase (GOD) nanoparticles (NPs) using ethanol. The enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and were co-immobilized covalently onto surface of polycrystalline Au electrode. An improved amperometric lactose biosensor was constructed using ENPs (β-GALNPs/GODNPs) modified Au electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as reference electrode and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode connected through potentiostat. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the study of working electrode before and after immobilization of ENPs. The biosensor showed maximum current at 0.25V within 5s, at pH 6.5 and 25<sup>o</sup>C. The limit of detection (LOD) was i.e. 1mg/ml and working range was 1-10 mg/mL. The analytical recovery of added lactose (5 and 10 mg/mL) was 94.73±0.5% and 96.4±0.9%, respectively. Coefficient of variation (CV) within and between batch were &lt;3.0 and &lt;4.0 respectively. The biosensor exhibited a good correlation (R<sup>2</sup>=0.91) between lactose level in milk as measured by standard (enzymatic colorimetric) method and present biosensor. The biosensor was employed for quantification of lactose in milk from human, cow, buffalo and goat. The working electrode lost 50% of its initial activity within 3 months, after its 120 uses, while being stored dry at 4ºC.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 21-30.</em></p> Jyoti Ahlawat, Vishakha Aggarwal, Ranjana Jaiwal, C.S. Pundir Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Nitrogen Level on Growth Pattern and Yield Performance of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Nepal <p>A field experiment was carried out with an objective to study the effect of nitrogen levels in the growth and yield performance of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PDR 14 or Uday) at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from October 2008 to March 2009. The experiment of nitrogen levels was carried out with five treatments of 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha with three dates of sowing in three replications in split plot design. The soil of the experimental plots was sandy loam with acidic (pH 6.33) in nature. The effect of nitrogen levels on growth pattern and grain yield was found significant. Significantly higher grain yield was obtained with 120 kg N/ha (2.57 t/ha) as compared to control (1.39 t/ha), 40 (1.84 t/ha), 80 (2.04 t/ha) and 160 (2.01 t/ha) kg N/ha, respectively. The yield increased significantly with nitrogen up to 120 kg/ha and then declined at 160 kg/ha. So, in order to achieve higher productivity of French bean, 120 kg N/ha can be considered as an optimum level of nitrogen application in the humid sub-tropical condition of inner Terai, Chitwan of Nepal.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 31-40.</em></p> Dinesh Bahadur Basnet, Komal Bahadur Basnet; Prakash Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Boron on Growth and Yield Parameters of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis cv Snow Mystique) in Terhathum, Nepal <p>A study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of boron on growth and yield parameters of Snow Mystique variety of cauliflower at farmer's field in Myanglung, Terhathum, Nepal during the winter season of 2019 AD. Five levels of boron <em>viz</em>, control (0 kg/ha), 0.5 kg/ha, 1.0 kg/ha, 1.5 kg/ha, and 2.1 kg/ha were applied in the field that was laid out in&nbsp; Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Data were recorded regarding plant height, canopy cover, and leaf number at 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after transplanting while yield parameters like curd diameter, curd yield, and biological yield after harvest. Days to curd initiation, days to harvest, and incidence of hollowing were also recorded in this study. Results revealed that boron had significant effect on growth as well as yield parameters of cauliflower, where the value of these parameters were higher at higher boron dose. Boron at the rate of 2.1 kg/ha produced significantly higher curd yield (67.59 t/ha), curd diameter (25.21 cm) and biological yield (72.27 t/ha) whereas the value of these parameters were lowest with control. Similarly, boron had significant effect on incidence of hollowing where the application of boron at the rate of 2.1 kg/ha recorded the minimum incidence of hollowing (15.27 %).&nbsp; Results from this experiment concludes that application of boron at the rate of 2.1 kg/ha could be suggested for cauliflower growing farmers of Terhathum district for increased growth and yield of cauliflower.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 41-49.</em></p> Nabin Poudel, Purnima Baral, Muna Neupane, Sundar Man Shrestha, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Sandesh Bhatta Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Farmer’s Knowledge of Antimicrobial Resistance, Their Practice of Antimicrobial Usage and Biosecurity Status of Poultry Farms in Kathmandu Valley and Chitwan District, Nepal <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The poultry industry has transformed into one of the vibrant economic activities in Nepal, contributing to almost 4% of the national GDP. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among the poultry farmers of Kathmandu valley and Chitwan district to assess their knowledge of antimicrobial resistance (AMR); their practice of antimicrobial usage and the biosecurity status of their poultry farms. The survey was done to understand the level of knowledge gap among the farmers regarding successful poultry farming with strict biosecurity protocol and minimal use of antibiotics. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared to interview a total of 112 farmers, with 56 respondents from each study sites. Only nineteen percent (11/56) of the farmers from the Kathmandu valley and 16% (9/56) of that of Chitwan district knew about the antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Doxycycline (25.9%, 29/112) was the most used antibiotic followed by Tylosin (21.5%, 24/112), Colistin (18.75%, 21/112), Ciprofloxacin (13.4%, 15/112) and Neomycin (12.5%, 14/112) in both districts.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Majority of the surveyed respondents lacked the proper awareness regarding the importance of considerate use of antimicrobial drugs, effectiveness of implementing proper biosecurity protocols in the farms, and the increasing challenge of AMR in the present world scenario. The findings and results of this survey identify the critical gaps in the knowledge of the farmers concerning the day-to-day operations in their poultry business. Immediate strategic actions and road-maps are required to solve the burgeoning problem of AMR considering the imprudent use of antibiotics in the poultry sector.</span></p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 50-59.</em></p> Sushan Dhakal, Tulsi Ram Gompo Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Screening and Confirmation of Vip3 gene presence in Bacillus thuringiensis strains native to Nepal <p>An insecticidal protein named Vegetative Insecticidal Protein (Vip) produced by <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> during its vegetative growth is gaining its popularity as second-generation insecticidal protein because of its lethal effect on insects of class Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera. The research was designed for the confirmation of <em>Vip3</em> gene presence in soil samples collected from different geographical region of Nepal. For the purpose, 36 soil samples from different places of Nepal were collected. Primers were used for PCR amplification of DNA templates extracted and product size was observed around 1621bp.Out of total sample analyzed, 10% of sample showed the presence of <em>Vip3 </em>gene.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(1): 71-74.</em></p> Sagar Dahal, Jaishree Sijapati, Sandeep Rijal Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000