International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2023-10-02T09:13:37+00:00 Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava Open Journal Systems <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> Mixed Pellet and Forage Diet in Growing Rabbits: Effect of Ipomoae batatas on Growth and Health Performance 2023-09-30T04:10:11+00:00 Ouation Souleymane Soro Vincent Kadjo Koffi Sylvanus Aubert Yao Moussa Kimse <p>The aim of this work is to test the effect of green forage <em>Ipomoea batatas </em>on young rabbit (<em>Oryctolagus cuniculus</em>) digestive health and growing performance. Two group (T and I) of 15 rabbits were made. These animals were weaned at 35 days of age and slaughtered at 70 days. The mean weight per group was 500 ± 20 g. Control group T was feed only with industrial pelleted Ivograin®. Experimental group I was feed with the same pelleted diet and green forage <em>I. batatas</em> in the cage. Results showed that the growing performances in group I were lower than control. Group I daily gain was 0.89g lower than T (P&lt;0.01). Fed intakes was 1.05 times lower with forage than control (P&lt;0.01). For sanitary risk index (mortality + morbidity) was 2 part higher in group I than control (14 <em>vs</em> 7, P&lt;0.01). However, the nutrient digestibility was higher with <em>I. batatas</em> group than control. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and Hc was 26.68, 23.43, 9.67, 18.56, 18.74 and 16.46 respectively higher with group I than control (P&lt;0.05). We can conclude that, associate green forage <em>I. batatas</em> with pelleted diet was not increased the young rabbit growing performances and health except nutrients digestibility.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(3): 123-127.</em></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine Viral Diarrhea in the Dairy Cattle of Rupandehi District of Nepal 2023-06-14T06:54:39+00:00 P. Tandan Madhav Paudel <p>Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a contagious disease caused by Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), which significantly impacts cattle health and productivity, leading to substantial economic losses for farmers. The Rupandehi district in Nepal, which shares an open border with India, is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and spread of BVD. Consequently, the objective of this research was to examine the prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infections and the associated risk factors that contribute to it in the Rupandehi district of Nepal. A two-phase random sampling method was used, where a total of 92 blood samples were obtained from female cattle from Devdaha, Sainamaina, Tilottama, and Suddhodhan Municipality. Serological testing using ID-Screen® BVD p80 Antibody Competition ELISA revealed that 10 samples (10.86%) tested positive for BVDV infection. Cattle aged over 5 years exhibited a higher seroprevalence rate in comparison to other age groups of 3-5 years and &lt; 3 years. Notably, Holstein (26.7%) and Holstein cross (15.4%) cattle exhibited a significantly higher prevalence compared to jersey, jersey cross, and indigenous cattle (p&lt;0.05). None of the assessed risk factors, including repeat breeding (infertility), history of abortion, history of retained placenta, diarrhea, and neonatal death, were found to be statistically significant in relation to the seroprevalence. The findings of this study indicate a comparatively higher seroprevalence rate than previous studies conducted in Nepal. Furthermore, the farmers of the affected herds displayed a lack of awareness regarding BVD and its presence on their farms. These results emphasize the urgent need for the relevant authorities to recognize BVD as a serious issue and take necessary nationwide measures for its control and eradication.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(3): 128-134</em></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Antibiogram Study of Bacteria Isolated from Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle of Kirtipur and Chandragiri Municipalities, Kathmandu, Nepal 2023-09-29T03:46:44+00:00 M. Paudel B. Bohara T. Prasai S. Bhattarai T.R. Gompo <p>The dairy sector in Nepal has a high potential for growth, but unfortunately, its progress is impeded by diseases such as mastitis. The purpose of the current investigation was to identify the predominant bacterial species in mastitis-affected cattle milk and to ascertain the most efficacious antibacterial treatment against the bacterial isolates. The study was conducted from 17<sup>th </sup>August 2022 to 12<sup>th</sup> February 2023 in lactating cattle of the Kirtipur municipality and Chandragiri municipality of Kathmandu district, Nepal. A total of 640 milk samples from 160 cattle were collected randomly from cattle farms of Kirtipur and Chandragiri municipality of Kathmandu district. Initial screening for mastitis was conducted on collection sites by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and further bacterial isolation and identification were carried out at the Central Veterinary Laboratory using standard bacterial techniques and the antibiogram were evaluated based on CLSI guidelines. &nbsp;Among 640 samples collected from 160 cattle, 3.91% (25/640) tested CMT-positive at the individual quarter level, whereas the prevalence at the cow level was 15.62% (25/160). The major bacterial species isolated, in subsequent culture of CMT positive samples, were <em>Staphylococcus spp.</em> (10, 40%), <em>E. coli</em> (6, 24%), <em>Streptococcus spp.</em> (5, 20%), <em>Enterococcus spp</em>. (2, 8%), <em>Bacillus spp.</em> (1, 4%), and <em>Klebsiella spp.</em> (1, 4%).. Antibiogram study reveals that &nbsp;major gram-positive bacteria, <em>Staphylococcus spp.,</em> <em>Streptococcus spp.,</em> <em>Enterococcus spp.,</em> and <em>Bacillus spp</em>. were highly sensitive to Ampicillin, &nbsp;Florfenicol, and Gentamicin while the &nbsp;major gram-negative bacteria, <em>E. coli,</em> and <em>Klebsiella spp.</em> were highly sensitive to Florfenicol, Gentamicin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole and Ceftriaxone. &nbsp;Hence, early diagnosis and careful monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility before therapeutic intervention are essential to prevent high economic losses due to mastitis and to mitigate the potential risk of antimicrobial resistance in the livestock population.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum roxb.) Cultivation in Sankhuwasabha, Nepal 2023-09-30T12:22:44+00:00 Prabhat Swar Umesh Timilsina Ashok Sah Saugat Bohara Able Shrestha Sanjib Chaudhary <p>The study was conducted in March, 2021 to assess the impacts of Climate Change on the production of Large Cardamom in Sankhuwasabha district of Nepal. The main purpose of the study was to know the impact of climate change on production of Large Cardamom. Primary data were collected by face to face interaction with 80 farmers with prepared questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed and processed by using MS-Excel through descriptive and inferential method. The results showed that majority of the respondents were male, janajati, literate and mainly depends upon agriculture occupation as their major source of income. They were familiar about Climate Change scenario revealed that increase in overall temperature, deficit in rainfall during flowering and fruiting has negative impact in crop yield. Occurrence of disease pest like wilt, leaf and root rot, Gabaro, Caterpillar and Chirkey, Furkey has heavily affected Large Cardamom orchard. Secondary data of past 10 year were collected from MoALD, AKC, DHM, World Weather Online etc. Secondary data were analyzed by using regression model and found that average seasonal maximum and minimum temperature was decreased by -0.0137ºC and -0.0045ºC respectively and annual rainfall was increased by 1.2326 mm and productivity decreased by 0.0026 ton/ha annually. Increase in temperature, drought, and lack of better irrigation facility, disease and pest problem, unavailability of quality planting materials were the major constraints faced by the Large Cardamom farmers.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(3): 143-151.</em></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status Under Different Rice Based Cropping Systems in Ratuwamai Municipality, Morang 2023-09-30T15:00:16+00:00 Ashok Sah Prakash Gurung <p>The experiment was conducted in Ratuwamai Municipality, Morang, Nepal to assess the impact of various cropping systems on soil fertility and nutrient status. Four different cropping systems (Rice-Wheat-Rice, Rice-Mustard-Maize, Rice-Maize and Rice-Mustard-Rice) were selected as treatments and all treatments were replicated five times in Randomized Complete Block Design. Soil samples from 0-15 cm depth were collected from each site and evaluated for soil pH, Soil Organic Matter content (SOM), Total Nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K), sand silt and clay content. All the tested parameters except Soil N content, sand content and clay content were found to be significantly affected by the cropping system. The soil in all four cropping systems were found acidic in nature with pH ranging from (4.18-4.48). The Soil Organic Matter was recorded highest (1.84%) from Rice-Maize based system and lowest amount of Soil Organic Matter was observed in Rice-Mustard-Rice based system. The highest N content (0.19%) was recorded from the Rice-Mustard-Maize cropping system and the lowest N content (0.02%) was recorded from Rice-Wheat-Rice cropping system which is statistically similar to Rice-Mustard-Rice based cropping system. The highest P content (163.95kg/ha) was recorded from Rice-Mustard-Maize and the lowest (75.28kg/ha) was recorded from Rice-Mustard-Rice based cropping system. The highest K content (169.18kg/ha) was recorded from Rice-Mustard-Rice cropping system and the lowest K content (57.76kg/ha) was observed in Rice-Wheat-Rice based system. The highest silt content (48.38%) was recorded from Rice-Mustard-Maize cropping system. The result indicated that the Soil Organic Matter, Nitrogen and Potassium were found to be deficit nutrients in all the cropping system.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(3): 152-157.</em></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Drinking Water Quality from Different Sources at Squatter Settlements of Bagmati River Corridors in Kathmandu, Nepal: An Assessment using Water Quality Index (WQI) 2023-10-01T03:03:06+00:00 Bijaya Adhikari Achut Ram Pradhananga Bindra Devi Shakya Deepak Chhetry Karki Dipesh Raj Pant Jasana Maharjan Pramod Kumar Yadav Pawan Raj Shakya <p>People living in squatter settlements are more vulnerable to health hazards due to a lack of potable drinking water. The key mission of this study was to evaluate the water quality from different sources at squatter settlements of Bagmati river corridors in Kathmandu. For this, a total of 131 water samples (24 KUKL pipelines, 29 wells, 35 tube wells, 9 stone spouts, 15 tankers, and 19 jars) were collected from different communities of the settlements from December 2021 to May 2022. The water quality of these sources was assessed using physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The water quality index (WQI) was also used to classify the suitability of different water sources. The results of all parameters were compared against the safe limits of the National Drinking Water Quality Standards (NDWQS, 2005). Out of 131 water samples, 11.5%, 24.4%, 11.5%, 16.0%, 28.2%, and 16.8% exceeded the NDWQS safe limits for total dissolved solids, total hardness, chloride, ammonia, iron, and manganese respectively. Likewise, 11.5% and 31.3% of the total water samples were contaminated with fecal and total coliform respectively. Tube well source was found highly contaminated both in physicochemical and microbiological form whereas jar water demonstrated more suitability for drinking purposes. Estimated WQI values also revealed well and tube well sources as poor, KUKL pipeline, stone spout, tanker sources as good, and jar as an excellent class of water. Since most of the water sources in this study were polluted, the implementation of appropriate water treatment processes as well as regular monitoring of water sources are strongly recommended.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(3): 158-170.</em></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology