International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2023-03-31T08:58:30+00:00 Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava Open Journal Systems <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> Controlling Tobacco Diseases: An Overview of Black Shank and Fusarium Wilt 2023-02-12T12:04:06+00:00 Roman Pandey <p>Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae, and Fusarium wilt, caused by the Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. nicotianae, are major diseases affecting tobacco crops globally. Phytophthora nicotianae is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions and infects tobacco plants by producing zoospores that swim to root tissue and form cysts. Symptoms of black shank include root and crown rot, wilting, leaf chlorosis, stem lesions, and pith necrosis. Management strategies for black shank include cultural practices, chemical treatments, and host resistance. Chemical fungicides, such as metalaxyl or mefenoxam, oxathiapiprolin, and fluopicolide, can be used but there is a risk of fungicide resistance. Fusarium wilt is characterized by yellowing, drying, and death of leaves, leading to the death of the entire plant. Control measures for Fusarium wilt include plant resistance, cleanliness, crop rotation, nutrition, nematode management, and fumigation or biofumigation. The most successful control of Fusarium wilt has been through the use of resistant tobacco cultivars. The impact of rotation crops and resistant plants on the pathogen populations in the soil must be evaluated and soil pH and calcium levels may also impact the disease. The presence of the fungus in a field can last for several years without a vulnerable host.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(1): 1-7.</em></p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Effect of Hydroponically Grown Forages on Growth Performance of Rabbit 2023-03-28T04:03:09+00:00 Manoj Kumar Shah Milan Thapa Magar Shatrughan Shah <p>An experiment was carried out on weaned rabbits at Swine and Avian Research Program, Khumaltar from 11 June 2020 to July 29, 2020 after adjustment period of seven days. The objective to evaluate the effect of hydroponically grown forages on growth performance of rabbit. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three treatments viz. control without inclusion of hydroponic forage (T1), combination of pea and wheat hydroponic forage (T2), concentrate mixture with pea hydroponic forage (T3) and concentrate mixture with wheat hydroponic forage (T4) in rabbit feeding diet. A total of 60 rabbits each treatment containing 5 rabbits kept for 8<sup>th</sup> weeks’ period. The data on feed intake was recorded daily and body weight was measure in weekly basis. Combination of pea and wheat hydroponic forage treatment showed the significant results on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio(FCR). The experiment revealed that the highest forage hydroponic forage intake (177.48 g) and weight gain (158.67g) was observed in T2 (combination of pea and wheat in hydroponics system) and lowest in T1 (46.67g). The highest FCR was found in T1 (3.75) and lowest in T2 (2.28). The results of this study showed that growth performance of rabbits on combination of pea and wheat hydroponically grown forage feeding practices at intensive system found better than without hydroponically grown forage feeding practices. Further study should be carried out to precise the appropriate hydroponic forage recommending this practices to the rabbit growers. </p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Goat Feed Resources and Feeding Management in Mid-Hill of Nepal 2023-03-31T01:59:41+00:00 Manoj Kumar Shah Luma Nidhi Pandey Rupa Bastola Bimala Shah Shatrughan Shah <p>This study was commissioned to assess studies on feeding resources and feeding management of goat in mid hills of Nepal. During the study, 162 goat farms located in Ghiring and Baradi of Tanahun districts in Nepal were surveyed, and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each farm. Farmers in this region prefer integrating livestock raising with crop production. The majority of the farms surveyed kept indigenous Khari goats, either in pure flocks or through crossbreeding. The types of goat farming were commercial (8.02%), semi-commercial (29.01%) and subsistence (62.96%). The nature of management practices for goat farmers was intensive (70.99%), semi-intensive (14.81%) and free range (14.20%). Farmers grazed their livestock in different locations, including their own land (48.77%), forests (22.22%), and other places (29.01%). The selection of fodder species by farmers varied depending on the availability of different species in the mid hills, reflecting differences in their perception and preference. Among the top fodder species highly preferred by the farmer in summer season are <em>Ficus cunia</em> followed by <em>Bauhinia longifolia</em>, <em>Ficus hispida</em>, <em>Castanopsis indica</em> and <em>Ficus auriculata</em>. Fodder species highly preferred by the farmers in winter season are <em>Litsea</em><em> polyantha</em> followed by <em>Drepanostachyum khasianum</em>, <em>Shorea robusta</em>,<em> Terminalia elliptica</em> and <em>Mangifera indica</em>. &nbsp;Goat production is an essential aspect of subsistence farming, providing both meat and cash income. Consequently, this study recommends promoting locally preferred tree fodder species and supplementing them with feed during different seasons, based on their availability and local preferences. Such strategies can help to improve goat production and support sustainable livelihoods for farmers in the region.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(1): 15-24</em></p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Effect of Bunch Feeding on Yield Parameters of Banana cv. Grand Naine in Ratnanagar, Chitwan, Nepal 2023-03-31T07:57:30+00:00 Shrisha Shrestha Sabin Bhattarai Palsang Tamang Anu Ranabhat <p>A field experiment consisting of bunch stalk feeding with different treatments on yield of banana cv. Grand Naine (G9) was conducted during 2022 in Ratnanagar-12, Jamunapur of Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment was laid in Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 7 treatments and 3 replications. Bunch fed with dipping the cut end in the combination of 500gm cow dung + 10g urea + 20g SOP + 15mg of GA3 + 100ml water resulted significantly higher finger length (20.36 cm), finger weight (0.18kg), finger diameter (36.28mm, bunch length (101.90 cm), bunch weight (32.37 kg), peel weight (19.05 g). and pulp weight (82.39 g) compared with control (without bunch stalk feeding). Thus, the research shows that the bunch feeding with 500gm cow dung, 10g urea, 20g SOP and 15mg of GA3 improves yield parameters of banana cv. Grand Naine.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(1): 25-29.</em></p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Morpho-agronomic Characterization of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Germplasm for Yield and Yield-associated Traits 2023-03-31T02:14:20+00:00 Ram P Mainali Sunmoon Jyakhwa <p>Nepal possesses a rich diversity of cucumber landraces and their wild relatives. The first step towards harnessing the potential of these landraces in crop improvement programs is to identify the amount of genetic variation present among them. This research aimed to evaluate 18 cucumber accessions collected from different regions of Nepal and assess their agro-morphological variation in terms of yield and yield-associated traits under polyhouse condition. A research trial was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replicates at the National Agriculture Genetic Resources Centre (NAGRC), Khumaltar in 2019. The accessions were characterized using various qualitative and quantitative descriptors, with six focusing on traits related to the fruits of the plant and three on phenology and morphology. The results revealed significant variations among the genotypes for all studied traits. Bhaktapur Local was an excellent genotype for recording yield and associated traits, like fruit dimension, number of fruits per plant and yield per plant, making it the most promising genotype, however, Genebank accessions, such as NGRC08671, NGRC07716 and NGRC08668 could be excellent choices for yield associated traits. Correlation analysis indicated a positive relationship between yield and fruit length, fruit width, and total number of fruits per plant, while vine length was positively correlated with the total number of fruits produced per plant. This study identified several genotypes with desirable traits for yield and yield-associated characteristics, which could be valuable in the development of high-yielding cucumber varieties with superior morphological and agronomic traits in the future.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(1): 30-36.</em></p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Effect of Different Mulching Materials on Leaf Spot Disease of Groundnut 2023-03-31T07:43:53+00:00 Pramod Wagle Bisheshwar Prasad Yadav Santosh Rasaily Sovika Bhattarai Biplav Dahal <p>A study was conducted in summer season of 2020 and 2021 to evaluate the effect of different mulching materials on late leaf spot disease of groundnut caused by <em>Phaeoisariopsis personata </em>(Berk. &amp; Curt.) v. Arx at Oilseed Research Program, Sarlahi, Nepal. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 7 treatments viz. rice husk, rice straw, black polythene sheet, <em>Lantana camara,</em> living mulch, sawdust and control in three replications with fertilizer dose 20:40:20 NPK kg per hectare. The disease was scored in 1-9 scale and severity and AUDPC was calculated. In 2020, <em>Lantana camara</em> mulched plot showed significantly the lowest disease severity and the lowest AUDPC value (66.67% and 1556) followed by rice husk (70.37% and 1556) and black plastic (70.37% and 1611) mulched plot. Similarly in 2021, <em>Lantana camara</em> mulched plot showed significantly lowest disease severity and the lowest AUDPC value (62.96% and 1500) followed by rice husk (66.67% and 1574) and black plastic (66.67% and 1574) mulched plot. Significantly the highest pod yield was obtained in rice husk mulched plot (2.35 t/ha in 2020 and 2.07 t/ha in 2021) followed by living mulch treated plot (2.13 t/ha in 2020 and 1.84 t/ha in 2021). The highest disease severity (81.4% same as rice straw and saw dust mulched plot) with highest AUDPC value (1981) was observed in plot with no mulch during 2020 where as in 2021, the highest disease severity (77.78 same as plot with no mulch) with highest AUDPC value (1889) was observed in rice straw mulched plot. This study shows that organic mulches like rice husk could be better option for reducing disease severity with better yield in groundnut.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(1): 37-41.</em></p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination Levels in Market Gardening Soils Used to Grow Onions (Allium Cepa) in the City of Abéché (Eastern Chad) 2023-03-31T01:44:44+00:00 Hamadou Abdou Ekengele Nga Léopold Mahamat Seid Ali Malloum Dieudonné Bitom <p>The main objective of this study was to assess the level of metal contamination of the soils used in the cultivation of onions in the city of Abéché. Thus, 04 plots were carried out and monitored for a period of five years (05 years). Two traditional plots were chosen in the Arkou site; and two control plots were carried out in the Bagarine site. Soil samples were taken annually (2016 to 2020) after harvesting on a thickness of 0 and 20 cm. In each plot, thirteen (13) samples were taken. After quartering, one (01) representative sample from each plot was retained. The samples were analyzed by optical emission spectrometry at the Food Quality Control Center Laboratory (FQCCL) in Ndjamena. The determination of heavy metal concentrations revealed relatively low levels for Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe. These levels are generally lower than the reference values ​​for all the plots. Geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) and Contamination factor (Cf) revealed pollution indices. Pb and Cd show contaminations in traditional plots. The correlations (P &lt; 0.05) observed in our study area are positive and significant. This study shows that the use of chemical inputs are sources of soil contamination by heavy metals.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 11(1): 42-53.</em></p> 2023-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology