https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/issue/feed Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2021-12-30T16:09:19+00:00 Mr Man Bahadur Khattri mankhattri@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Dhawalagiri Multiple Campus, Baglung, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Dhaulagiri Journal is now accepting online submissions. Please <a title="Register" href="https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/user/register" target="_self">register</a> with the journal to submit your articles. If you experience any problems registering please contact the editor <a href="mailto:mankhattri@gmail.com">mankhattri@gmail.com</a></p> <p class="Pa2"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>. DJSA does not charge article processing fees. No fee is charged for submission and processing articles to this journal</p> <p class="Pa2">Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is included on <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/1994-2672" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41935 Editorial Notes Vol.15 2021-12-30T15:31:11+00:00 Man Bahadur Khattri mankhattri@gmail.com <p>No abstract available.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Man Bahadur Khattri https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41931 Interview with Professor Chaitanya Mishra 2021-12-30T13:04:52+00:00 Madhusudan Subedi madhusudansubedi@gmail.com Man Bahadur Khattri mankhattri@gmail.com <p>Professor Chaitanya Mishra teaches Sociology to MPhil/PhD students at Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal. His research focuses on macrosociology, politics, social change, and social stratification. He is an author/co-author, and co-editor of 10 books and about 250 articles. He believes that all sciences should contribute to public education, and frequently contributes to public debates through the media. He started his career in 1978 as a researcher at the Institute of Nepal and Asian Studies, TU. In 1981, he was appointed the founder Chair of the Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology, TU. He has written on the development of sociological knowledge in Nepal, its disciplinary growth, empirical and theoretical orientations, as well as strategies that could be adopted to meet contemporary disciplinary challenges. His contributions have led to theoretical debates on the issues of development or underdevelopment of Nepali society as well as the nature and causes of economic and political divisions and alternative trajectory of change. Professor Mishra served as a member of Nepal’s National Planning Commission (1994-95), founding president of Nepal Sociological Association (2017-18), Fulbright Visiting Professor and Hubert Humphrey Professor of Sociology at Macalester College (2015-16), and founding Executive Chair of the Policy Research Institute (2018-19) of the Government of Nepal.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chaitanya Mishra https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41932 Interview with Professor Om Gurung 2021-12-30T13:31:29+00:00 Man Bahadur Khattri mankhattri@gmail.com Madhusudan Subedi madhusudansubedi@gmail.com <p>Professor Om Gurung is a senior anthropologist, an influencing intellectual, and a prominent public leader in Nepal. He served Tribhuvan University as a professor of anthropology for 36 years and headed the Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology for 13 years. <br>Professor Gurung did his M. A. in History from Tribhuvan University in 1975, M. A. in anthropology from the University of Poona in 1980, and Ph. D. in Anthropology from Cornell University of Ithaca, New York in 1996. He is one of the founding members of the Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology at Tribhuvan University of Nepal. He has served as a visiting professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Liverpool John Moores University in the UK, Lille University in France, and the University of Sichuan in China. He is a visiting research fellow at the University of Bergen, Norway, and a guest lecturer at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, Oxford University, UK, China Institute of New School University, New York, the University of Mons, Belgium, the University of Heidelberg, Germany and Chinese University in Hong Kong. <br>Professor Gurung was heavily engaged in various social, professional, and political organizations. He has made substantial scholarly and social contributions to the understanding of social and political issues of Nepal. As a promising intellectual leader of ethnic rights and politics of social inclusion in Nepal, he raised socio-political awareness among indigenous peoples of Nepal and mobilized them to assert their ethnic identity and cultural rights. He has a deep commitment to the development of anthropology and Nepali people. </p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Om Gurung https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41921 Menstrual Exclusions in Nepal: Some Evidence of Transition 2021-12-30T06:02:16+00:00 Madhusudan Subedi madhusudansubedi@gmail.com Sara Parker S.L.Parker@ljmu.ac.uk <p>There is a long history of menstrual restrictions, stigmas and taboos across nearly all religions, regions and cultures. The origins of myths and misconceptions have often been linked to various religious texts and women were prohibited from participating in normal life while menstruating. Culturally, in many parts of the world, menstruation is still considered ‘dirty’ and ‘impure’, although this is not true. Menstruation is often associated with feelings of shame, horror, danger, disgust, and sin. There have been initiatives to change the perception that menstruating women are not polluted, thus bringing an end to traditional customs such as not being allowed to sleep in their own home or touch male relatives to more extreme forms of isolation such as being confined to the ‘cow shed’. This paper draws on research conducted between 2019 and 2021 under a British Academy-funded Global Challenge Research Fund project entitled ‘Dignity Without Danger’. The study employed qualitative methods, covering 160 qualitative interviews and 16 focus group discussions among different caste and ethnic groups in three different ecological areas (mountain, hill, and tarai) in seven provinces in Nepal. Today, menstruating women have relatively more freedom to discuss this topic due to increased awareness that menstruation is a natural process. However, our study shows there are still differences between cultures, religions, castes and ethnic groups, and regions, and a single narrative does not represent the issues related to menstrual exclusion in Nepal. The study shows that many menstruating girls and women are still restricted in a number of diverse ways, from not offering prayers, entering or worshiping in temples, touching holy books, and participating in religious rituals. In some areas, more extreme practices persist which discriminate against women when menstruating. Our research highlights that education and an interdisciplinary, multisector approach are required if menstrual discrimination is to be addressed. Finally, this paper emphasizes the necessity for providing correct knowledge about menstruation to the entire community including elders, males and religious leaders as well as adolescents and young girls. Such knowledge will help them practice safe and hygienic menstrual practices, challenge and reduce their traditional beliefs, misconceptions and restrictions regarding menstruation that are essential to achieving menstrual dignity. </p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Madhusudan Subedi & Sara Parker https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41919 One Facet of Ethnic Categorization, Ethnicization and Ethnic Activism in Nepal 2021-12-30T04:57:51+00:00 Pradeep Acharya pradeepacharya@hotmail.com <p>Ethnicity and identity. particularly for Nepal with diverse human and cultural groups, has become more important in the context of number of ethnic upsurges accompanying macro-level social movements in Nepal, resulting in a radical transformation in the political system. Given the context, this paper aimed to reflect one of the many dimensions of ethnic activism in historical context focused on one of Nepal's least studied ethnic groups, the Paharis. Further, the paper also attempted to connect the categorization of human groups with the politics of identity. The paper is prepared by extensive reviews supplemented by a number of in-depth interviews among the given community around Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Kabhrepalanchok, and Sindhupalchok district. The paper concludes that Pahari ethnicity and activism have their own trajectory within the broader ethnic movement and activism that became apparent after 1990, followed by the movement initiated by other ethnic groups.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pradeep Acharya https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41923 Federalism Practice in Nepal: Does it Move in the Expected Course? 2021-12-30T06:56:28+00:00 Keshav K. Acharya keshavkacharya@gmail.com <p>This study examines how far Nepal's current practice of federalism has progressed toward people's aspirations, based on power separation, public trust, power equalization, and intergovernmental relationships. Primary data was collected on purposively 72 key informant interviews, which were then triangulated by the KII response. Finding demonstrates that functions and authorities were devolved in accordance with the principle of separation of powers at all three levels of government. However, the constitutional provisions were completely disregarded, and power was centralized by an unholy alliance of political leadership and bureaucracy. Second, people expected the democratic government to take a welfare approach to ensure greater pluralism and alliances, but special interests of politicians for their election constituencies, as well as identity-based issues, caused havoc in the effective operation of federalism. Third, the provision of three tiers of power-sharing mechanisms was based on coexistence, cooperation, and coordination. However, the federal government appears hesitant to support sub-national governments due to the centralized mindset of bureaucrats and politicians. Fourth, the constitution has focused on intergovernmental relations, but such relationships fail due to imbalances in vertical and horizontal relationships, fiscal dependency, and the bureaucracy's power-seeking attitude. In the end, two key questions for the discussions are raised. First, the institutionalization of accountability at the local level is it a true commitment, or is it merely an ivory tower? Second, the provision of autonomy has been used as a means of transformation or simply as a bargaining tool at the local level?</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Keshav K. Acharya https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41924 Men and Feminism in Nepal 2021-12-30T07:37:14+00:00 Mira Mishra miramishra1@gmail.com <p>This paper narrates the experience and interpretation of feminism among 15 men students and graduates of a Gender Studies program in Nepal. It analyzes the benefits men report they have enjoyed and challenges they faced in engaging with feminism. It further discusses the strategies they employed to mitigate the challenges they faced when upscaling personal engagement in feminism. Finally, it reflects on how such engagements could be inserted into the program. </p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mira Mishra https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41925 Middle Castes Against Hill High Caste Political Domination in Nepal: Can Indian Experience Be A Lesson? 2021-12-30T08:15:57+00:00 Chudamani Basnet cbasnet@gmail.com <p>This study examines the problems and prospects of middle caste politics in Nepal based on similar political developments in north India. It investigates the processes of middle caste and class formation in the two countries and goes on to examine demography and upper-caste political strategies. Taking the Federal Socialist Forum Nepal (FSFN) and its trajectory as an example of middle caste political formation, it shows that the middle castes are at a disadvantage in Nepal than their brethren have been in north India. FSFN’s new merger with two political parties recently further shows the difficulty of mobilizing a middle caste political force and mounting a sustained challenge against the political domination of the hill upper castes. This paper also analyzes emerging caste relations in contemporary Nepal. </p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chudamani Basnet https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41926 Inhabiting the World’s Largest Tropical Delta: Understanding Human-Environment Relationship from a Century-Long Archaeological Quest in Bangladesh 2021-12-30T08:29:58+00:00 Rifat Ur Rahman rifat218@gmail.com Abu B. Siddiq abubakarsiddiq@artuklu.edu.tr <p>Due to the exceptionally rich tropical resource, the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra basins have attracted people of diverse ethnic and geographical backgrounds for millennia. So far 524 protected sites in present Bangladesh indicate the busy human occupation in the world’s largest delta at least from 5th century BCE. Although systematic archaeology began in the 1870s there is still a paucity of knowledge about past human land use and livelihood strategies across this area, which is especially prone to floods, cyclones, and river migrations. Here we attempt a systematic survey of human-environment interactions in ancient deltaic Bangladesh. Revisiting the fragmentary information from archaeological records and epigraphic references produced through over a century-long archaeological legacy, this study is the first attempt at a synthesis of the changing relationships between ancient people and their environment elements including land, water bodies, flora and fauna.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rifat Ur Rahman & Abu B. Siddiq https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41927 Motivations and Emotions Behind Guru Seeking: A Case Study of Thakur Anukulchandra in Bhubaneswar, Odisha 2021-12-30T08:57:32+00:00 Soumya Mohapatra soumya.mohapatra@kls.ac.in <p>This article explores why people seek out a religious guru, with special reference to Thakur Anukulchandra and his followers in contemporary urban settings of Bhubaneswar, Odisha in India. Through an ethnographic approach, this article examines the expectations of the devotees while seeking out spirituality and what kind of emotions people go through in this process, i.e. their hopes, disappointments, social bonds created with the guru and other followers. It looks at why the followers of this tradition are attracted to this particular ideology, philosophy and its relevance in an urbane setting. The study’s rationale is to explore the complex emotional bond between the guru and the followers, the narratives of devotion, accounts of miracles performed, indices of anxiety, and the nature of well-being. Findings suggest that Thakur’s sect provides people with a meaning and purpose in life and a personal connection with the charismatic guru that helps them tide over various existential crises. By making connections between the past and the present, the organization tries to anchor people’s lives and experiences.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Soumya Mohapatra https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41928 Financial Rewards and Job Commitment Among Public Secondary School Teachers in Ogun State, Nigeria 2021-12-30T09:01:52+00:00 Oluwatoyin Gbenga Bawalla bawalla.oluwatoyin@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng Adebimpe A. Adenugba bimpeadenugba@gmail.com <p>The paper aims to examine the effects of financial rewards on job commitment among public secondary school teachers in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was anchored on the interpretative meaning of expectancy theory. The sample consisted of 750 public secondary school teachers drawn from the three senatorial districts of Ogun State. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics and types of financial rewards available to public secondary school teachers in Ogun State. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. The hypothesis stipulated was analyzedusing Pearson product moment. The study found out that prompt payment of teachers’ salaries induce higher commitment to teaching, public school teachers were not satisfied with the government remuneration and there was positive and strong relationship between financial rewards and teachers job commitment (r = 0.74). The study concluded that there is significant relationship between financial rewards and teachers’ job commitment. The authors recommended that the government should provide a special salary structure for government secondary school teachers like their counterparts in other professions since they are disputably the most significant group of professionals for any nation’s economy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Oluwatoyin Gbenga Bawalla & Adebimpe A. Adenugba https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41930 Interface between Education and Tourism around Panchmul Area of Aandhikhola Rural Municipality of Syangja District 2021-12-30T11:55:48+00:00 Rajan Binayek Pasa rbpshrestha_1942@yahoo.com <p>This study explores the interface between education and tourism constructs through a qualitative approach and multiple case study research methods. The key objectives of the research were to look at the interface between informal education and tourism, to appraise the interface between non-formal education and tourism as well as to explore the interface between formal education and tourism development activities in the study area. In-depth interviews of 6 males and 3 females from the education program and another 6 males and 3 females from the tourism development program were undertaken by applying the purposive sampling principle. Likewise, 3 FGDs and participant observation techniques were also applied for developing multiple forms of genres, which were generated through re/productive socio-cultural and economic structures of Panchmul. The findings reveal that education plays a functional transformative role in tourism development that is supported by the theory of practice, capability approach, and sustainability approach. Based on the findings, this study has also developed a strategic interface model and strategic framework for tourism development that can be applied in the Panchmularea and other similar places. Hence, knowledge generated from this study is equally fruitful to readers, local development stakeholders, and policymakers and planners in central, provincial, and local levels of governments in Nepal.</p> <p> </p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rajan Binayek Pasa https://nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/41929 Gandharva and Their Livelihood in Baglung District, Nepal 2021-12-30T09:58:56+00:00 Saroj Raj Panta sarojpanta.sp84@gmail.com <p>This paper focuses on the changing livelihood of the Gandharva, a minority people of Baglung District, Nepal. This research adopts qualitative data based on observations, case studies, in-depth-interview, and a literature review. The data have been thematically analyzed and interpreted. Gandharva usually follow their traditional methods of singing and storytelling (Gainegeet), playing sarangi. Sarangi is a traditional musical instrument. Today many of them have adopted agriculture, carpentry, mason, driving, and labor jobs for their livelihood. They are forced to change their livelihood due to limited income insufficient to fulfill their basic needs. Switching to other occupations is not easy. They face lots of difficulty. Due to globalization and modernization, modern songs, radio, television, you tube, social media are getting popular than songs of Gandharva. People today rarely listen to Gandharva's songs and Sarangi, which is on the verge of extinction. This paper explores their lives closely to understand their difficulties and struggle for survival.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Saroj Raj Panta