Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2020-12-30T12:41:25+00:00 Mr Man Bahadur Khattri Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Dhawalagiri Multiple Campus, Baglung, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Dhaulagiri Journal is now accepting online submissions. Please <a title="Register" href="/index.php/DSAJ/user/register" target="_self">register</a> with the journal to submit your articles. If you experience any problems registering please contact the editor <a href=""></a></p> <p class="Pa2"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>. DJSA does not charge article processing fees. No fee is charged for submission and processing articles to this journal</p> <p class="Pa2">Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> Professor Gunnar Haaland, University of Bergen, Norway 2020-12-30T12:41:05+00:00 Man Bahadur Khattri Madhusudan Subedi <p>Interview.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Man Bahadur Khattri, Madhusudan Subedi Editorial Notes 2020-12-30T12:41:07+00:00 Man Bahadur Khattri <p>Editorial note.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Man Bahadur Khattri Gender Differentials in Climate Change Perception in the Kaligandaki Basin, Nepal 2020-12-30T12:41:03+00:00 Rishikesh Pandey <p>Men and women variably perceive climate change, as the literature suggests that women perceive a higher level of changes compared to men. This study investigated differentials in climate change perception among Nepal's men and women, using a river basin level primary data. Data were collected from 360 household heads of three spatial clusters – Meghauli (153), Lumle (141), and Upper-Mustang (66), located at different ecological zones of the Kaligandaki Basin. Out of the total respondents, 106 were women. Perceptions on 11 weather-related elements were asked to the respondents to level the perceived change in the unipolar Likert Scale. Such information was supplemented through 75 Key Informants (KIs), 24 Focused Group Discussions (FGDs), and Historical Timeline Calendars from nine locations. Findings suggest that differences in climate change perception exist between women and men, and women in particular generally felt a higher level of change. However, the findings are not strongly supported by both statistical tests i.e. test of mean differences (the independent sample t-test) between the responses of men and women, and the test of association (chi-square) between the gender of respondents and the type of responses they have chosen. The findings indicate that both men and women perceive the change if it was easily noticeable. Therefore, a critical understanding of the association of other socio-economic and ecological factors on the construction of perception to climate change would be necessary to form a successful climate change adaptation policy. Furthermore, since the findings are based on an exploratory and cross-sectional study, further investigation with rigorous approaches is required to draw more concrete conclusions.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rishikesh Pandey COVID-19: Anthropocene and Capitalocene Caused Pandemics 2020-12-30T12:41:08+00:00 Madhusudan Subedi <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Most epidemiological studies focus on the direct causes of diseases while wider, social causal factors are ignored. This paper briefly highlights the history of major epidemics and the role of Anthropocene and Capitalocene for the emergence and reemergence of pandemics like COVID-19. Books, journal articles, and statistics offer information that can explain the phenomena. A historical inquiry can inform us about the fundamental causes of pandemics. Human security and ecology are intertwined, and the global effect of pandemics responded to at the national level is inadequate. The lessons from the past and present help us devise effective ethically and socially appropriate strategies to mitigate the threats. If the present crisis is not taken seriously at the global level, the world has to face more difficult challenges in years to come.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Madhusudan Subedi Teachers’ Awareness Toward Students’ Psychosocial Wellbeing 2020-12-30T12:41:09+00:00 Samidha Dhungel Pokharel Ranju Adhikari <p>Ten to twenty percent of adolescents in the world experience mental health or behavioral problems. Emotional, psychological and social welbeing are the three components of mental health. Awareness on psychosocial wellbeing is an integral part of early identification of mental health issues. This paper describes teachers’ awareness toward psychosocial wellbeing of schoolchildren. Fifty teachers from three schools in Kathmandu metropolitan city were chosen purposively for information collection. Based on exploratory and descriptive research design, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through self reported technique. Manual for the Youth Self Report and 1991 Profile by Achenbach (1991) on the basis of most commonly reported school children’s behavioral problems in literatures. The findings suggest that school children are going through behavioral issues and a majority of school teachers are aware of this. The findings also suggest that abundant numbers of teachers in schools are unaware of certain mental health issues and never pay attention to those areas. Moreover, teachers with trainings have higher tendency of awareness regarding psychosocial wellbeing of school children. This paper emphasizes need for a training on mental health to improve the current mental health issues in schools.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Samidha Dhungel Pokharel Herding in Crisis in the Himalaya 2020-12-30T12:41:10+00:00 Jiban Mani Poudel <p>This paper focuses on the change and transformation of herding over the last seven decades to the Nhāson Valley of Manang based on an ethnographic study in 2018. The findings reveal that herding as a traditional source of living for the mountain dwellers, has gradually been transformed due to the linkage to wider political and economic processes, namely, the changes in open-border policy between China and Nepal, the intervention of state programs and its policies toward the people, the expansion of trade and business with tourism, commercialization of Himalayan herbs, climate change, and intervention of agroforestry in the community forest and plantation of high-value cash crops in private lands, youth opportunities to work in aboard. Hence, looking at herding by placing it in a particular place or in isolation by ignoring the wider political and economic processes is misleading, one-sided, and superficial. Moreover, the market economy and the state intervention have brought some new livelihood opportunities to the Himalayan dwellers, although the questions always remain in its sustainability.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jiban Mani Poudel An Anthropological Study of COVID-19: Effects on Socio-cultural Life of the People 2020-12-30T12:41:11+00:00 Prakash Prasad Sapkota <p>The disease is such a situation in the body of the people which adversely affect physical, mental, and the social situation remains. This situation appears with an imbalance relation between human's particular biology and his environment. The germ theory of disease trusts scientific theory for the multitude of disease caused by the activities of microorganisms. Coronavirus, too small microorganism cause COVID-19 disease in people. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the coronavirus and its effects on the socio-cultural life of the people based on the non-participatory observation and available literature by using descriptive research design. From this study it can be said that, coronavirus caused COVID-19 disease in the respiratory organ of people which is the most sensitive part of the body to alive. Coronavirus has increased fear among the people across the world which directly affects all socio-cultural dimension as educational, economic, inequality and domestic violence, cultural, religious, risk perception, and suicide activities of people. In this situation, it is better to focus on personal safety, complete social responsibility, develop knowledge and skills on both indigenous and modern medicine to cure and protect from such types of pandemic diseases based on their ecological environment.&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prakash Prasad Sapkota Emergent Positioning in Insider Ethnographic Field: Deconstructing the Ideological Frame of Insider or Outsider or Both 2020-12-30T12:41:13+00:00 Indra Mani Rai <p>The central concern of this paper is to discuss the positioning of the researcher while researching one’s own community ethnographically. It argues that insider and outsider positioning of a researcher in insider ethnographic research appears in a contextual, iterative, and emergent manner. The strategies provide space for critical self-reflexive practices in the field, thereby enhancing the quality standard. In addition, it argues that the positioning of the researcher appears while maintaining the ethical issue of confidentiality. Thus, the paper claims that it is not necessary to set the ideological frame for structuring the researchers whilst engaging in the field with particular positioning. It highlights that the defined roles of a researcher guide him/her in a way denying to engage in the field adapting the contextual phenomena, thereby creating difficulties for generating quality data.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Indra Mani Rai Claim and Association of Differently Located Ritual and Political Actors Associated with the Village Shrine among the Rajbansi People of Morang, Nepal 2020-12-30T12:41:14+00:00 Bhim Prasad Rai <p>This paper discusses how differently located ritual actors (Dhami) and socio-political actors or leaders (Jimdar) among the Rajbansi community link or associate themselves with the Maharaj Than to claim or legitimize their ritual and political power what Sherry Ortner (1989) calls it “to gain upper hand” in the Rajbansi society. Because the Maharaj Than possesses ʻa great virtueʼ among the Rajbansi society. Drawing on the ethnographic study of three village shrines of Morang district conducted during 2015-16 among the Rajbanshi. It further discusses how the ritual actors among the Rajbanshi people progressively lost their ritual and spiritual ‘power’ along with the advent of central state’s extractive economic policies, the changed environmental and ecological conditions of the Tarai.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bhim Prasad Rai A Dalit Mainstreaming in Rural Development: An Alternative Approach for Combating Poverty 2020-12-30T12:41:15+00:00 Rajan Binayek Pasa Lila Bahadur Bishwokarma <p>Rajan Binayek Pasa (Ph.D. in Education, 2019 and Ph.D. Scholar in Rural Development) is Assistant Professor at Central Department of Rural Development (CDRD), Tribhuvan University, University Campus Kirtipur Kathmandu. Besides, he has been serving as a coordinator of Self Study Report preparation committee of CDRD that is formed under Quality Accrediation Assurance project of University Grants Commission Nepal. Pasa’s publications within education and social sciences are more focused on transformative role of education, employability of technical education and vocational training, agriculture transformation, ecotourism and rural tourism development issues.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rajan Binayek Pasa, Lila Bahadur Bishwokarma Citizens’ Reflection on Democracy and Disaster in Nepal in the Wake of the 2015 Earthquake 2020-12-30T12:41:16+00:00 Isha Sharma <p>On April 25, 2015, Nepal was hit by a massive earthquake. Thousands of lives were lost. Extensive damage to infrastructure and property was reported. Using 30 interviews, I firstly examine how the people survived in the early days of the disaster. Secondly, I discuss how the citizens of Nepal, perceived democracy as a political system that is still novel for them, in the aftermath of the crisis. The interviewees reflected on the government’s response to the earthquake. Evidently, the study highlights the disjuncture between the kinds of relief a democratic state is expected to provide for the citizens and the state’s actual response to the needs of the earthquake survivors. Nepal has adopted democracy since 1990, however, it has failed to deliver on its promises, and people are thus ambivalent about the system. However, in the final analysis, it becomes apparent that people are unwilling to revert back to the old autocratic system. The conclusions of the study compel one to consider certain social processes. What affects citizens’ expectations of their government in the aftermath of a major disaster is contingent upon how states have acted in normal times. The state’s response to disasters might be influenced by what citizens expect from the state in the first place, thus, leading to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Finally, a democratic society is preferred by most, and the only way for the government to be more robust is to compel the leaders to adhere to the laws and regulations and operate according: those who break the laws must be made accountable.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Isha Sharma Changing Nature of Power and Leadership: How do They Matter in Rural Nepal? 2020-12-30T12:41:18+00:00 Mahendra Sapkota <p>Globally, power and leadership are considered as two unavoidable factors of social change and local development. In Nepal’s federal context, the nexus of power and leadership has been less addressed in academic research though most of the studies are focused on local governance. The present study attempts to analyze the nature of leadership and its power structure in the context of rural Nepal. It follows a critical ontological position of the development of power and leadership. Methodologically, a complete leadership of Dogana village in Suddhodhan Rural Municipality of Rupandehi district (Lumbini Province) was undertaken to assess the rural leadership. It is found that the most important factor for holding the rural leadership was ‘affiliation with the political party’, which was followed by ‘well-being ranking’ and ‘caste/ ethnic status’ of the leadership. The rural leaders used to change their policies and strategies to create and sustain power, such as doing multiple professions and building networks other than politics. The paper, therefore, concludes that a significant change occurred in leadership pattern and power structure of rural Nepal from informal to formal, and less inclusive to more inclusive and representative. Despite this, the changes are still elite-centric, politically vested, and economically favorable either to the upper-class people or middle-class mediators (bichauliyas). The study predicts that the contestations in leadership and power-sharing could be more critical in the days to come with the implementation of federalism in the rural context. The implication of this study largely relies on the context of local power structure and village politics in Nepal.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mahendra Sapkota Cooperation with Health Professionals during the Pandemic of COVID 19 2020-12-30T12:41:19+00:00 Ghanashyam Niroula <p>The article presents light on the issues of cooperation with health workers during the COVID 19. Coronavirus pandemic has become one of the challenges to humankind and it caused devastating effects in almost all countries of the world. The purpose of the paper is to analyze how important the role of people’s cooperation with health workers is during the coronavirus pandemic. The theoretical concept related to humanism and social identity theory is discussed to understand individual and group’s collective effort to increase cooperation in the society during the pandemic. Subsequently, different events of cooperation among people and health workers and other incidents depicting stigma and discrimination in Nepal and other places during the COVID 19 pandemic are discussed based on a review of literatures.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ghanashyam Niroula Trust in Ethnography: Narrating the Difficulties, Rewards and Dilemmas of Entry, Engagement and Exit (3Es) in the Research Field 2020-12-30T12:41:20+00:00 Sanjay Hamal <p>Field engagement of the researchers in ethnographic research determines the quality and the rigor of academic work. The engagement of the researcher in the field to elicit information, however, is a result of confidence and/or faith, named trust, that the researcher develops with his/her participants during the research process. Trust-building is a basic but fundamental research phenomenon that a researcher goes through in his/her fieldwork. But how to establish trust with research participants? This article is a reflection based on the product of my fieldwork and narrates my experience of the trust-building process that I had undergone in my research field. Though hailing from the same area, I had entered my ethnographic space like a university researcher rather than my native identity for different reasons. Thus in this paper, I narrate my field experiences of difficulty, reward, and the dilemma of my field journey i.e., difficulty in establishing trust while entering the research field; rewards with my shifting identity (revelation of my native identity) while engaging in the field; and my dilemma in protecting my participants' trust and their voices while exiting from the field. Out of many perspectives and approaches to conceptualize and establish trust, I take one put forth by Williamson (1993), who says trust builds mainly on repeated positive experiences, formally or informally, made over time and longstanding relations, and is built on the initial knowledge about the other.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sanjay Hamal Feminist Standpoint Theory: Conceptualization and Utility 2020-12-30T12:41:21+00:00 Lina Gurung <p>Feminist Standpoint theory challenges the notion of conventional scientific practices that had excluded women from the inquiry and marginalize them in every aspect of knowledge benefits and construction. Amidst the prevalent controversies, standpoint theorists have proposed alternative knowledge construction with the theses of ‘strong objectivity’, ‘situated knowledge’, ‘epistemic advantage’, and ‘power relations’. Feminist standpoint theory is claimed to be a successful methodology and the author support this argument based on the four reasons; the logic of discovery, insider-outsider position, study up, and methodological innovation. The author also put forwards the various challenges confronted by feminist standpoint theory and the justification given by the theorists. The cognitive, methodological, and epistemological interrogations toward this theory have widened its scope and adoption in social science research. The paper aims to suggest this analysis as the most suitable analytical and theoretical approach to do feminist inquiry which brings the understanding of feminist epistemologies as the most appropriate alternative approach of recent inquires against the dominant practices.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lina Gurung Mr Toyin Bawalla Coping Strategies of Today’s Public Secondary School Teachers, Ogun State, Nigeria 2020-12-30T12:41:23+00:00 Oluwatoyin Gbenga Bawalla <p>The study aimed at investigating the coping strategies adopted by public secondary school teachers in Ogun State, Nigeria. Today, Nigeria’s macro-economic factors ranging from inflation and the inability of the government to reward teachers adequately may have precipitated teachers to engage in other activities for additional income. The study was anchored on Equity Theory propounded by Adams which explains fairness in terms of the treatments of employees in the workplace. The study adopted a qualitative method to elicit information on challenges faced and reasons why teachers moonlight. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and In-depth Interviews (IDIs) were conducted for both the ASUSS unions and retired school principals in Ogun State. Data generated were transcribed and content-analyzed. The findings indicated that teachers were dissatisfied with their jobs thereby resorting to other activities which included anchoring events which are popularly known as masters of ceremonies in social events in weddings and coronations. The study recommended that there be a need to increase the pay packages for public secondary school teachers to make the education and teaching profession lucrative in to discourage teachers from moonlighting.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Oluwatoyin Gbenga Bawalla Level of Knowledge Management among Faculty Members in the Context of Nepali Higher Educational Institution 2020-12-30T12:41:24+00:00 Krishna Prasad Paudel <p>Knowledge management is taken as an integral component of any institution to enhance organizational effectiveness and productivity. Knowledge Management (KM) in academia is being prioritized these days to enhance academic activities and discourses. The knowledge management impacts to enhance the academic activities in academia, particularly for higher educational institutions (HEIs). Furthermore, the practices of KM enhance academic activities in higher educational institutions. Thus, the purpose of this research was to measure the level of KM among faculty members of HEIs. The quantitative method was used to conduct this research. The tools to measure knowledge management practices among faculty members of HEIs were developed by using Delphi methods. The 445 respondents were taken from the four universities of Nepal. Similarly, the data was taken from these universities as well. The factor analysis was used to identify the dimension of KM. The factor analysis identified seven dimensions of KM; knowledge utilization, acquisition, generation, dissemination, transfer, creation, and presentation. To analyze the level of the knowledge management, mean and standard deviation were used as the indicators or analysis tools for this research. The level of knowledge management was categorized into three groups viz. low, medium, and high. The study found that the overall pace of KM was high except for the knowledge generation process in the context of higher education. Due to individual differences and the organizational environment, culture, and technological infrastructure, it makes the level of knowledge generation differences comparing from other dimensions of knowledge management. </p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Krishna Prasad Paudel The Nepal’s Political Relationship with India: Under the Lens of Path Dependency Theory 2020-12-30T12:41:25+00:00 Gaurav Raja Dahal <p>The recent developments in Nepal’s politics from the abolition of autocratic monarchy, promulgation of a new constitution to successful completion of local, provincial, and federal level elections can be perceived as Nepal’s politics achieving miraculous success in forming democracy. Throughout the history, heavy reliance on the Indian economy has been considered as a major hurdle to Nepal’s sovereignty. This paper analyzes the Nepal-India relationship through path-dependent theory and argues that with series of above mentioned democratic success, the contemporary Nepali foreign policy towards India is at a critical juncture where Nepal can incorporate new changes to make its policies independent and uninfluenced by the Indian government. Analyzing the series of political and democratic events and foreign policies implemented to date, this paper aims to understand how the Nepali leadership can utilize these recent series of democratic successes as a turning point to break the traditional approach of forming policies to appease the Indian government and receive political and economic support and implement new policy changes leveraging on the multilateral organizations and developmental partners for its support economically and politically.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gaurav Raja Dahal Höfer, A. (2004). The caste hierarchy and the state in Nepal (2nd ed.). Himal Books. 2020-12-30T12:41:04+00:00 Prabhas Pokharel <p><em>In this article, I have analyzed András Höfer’s ‘The caste hierarchy and the state in Nepal’ through a post-modernist lens. The book is a study of the Muluki Ain (MA) of 1854. Through this review, I analyze the book as well as the MA and its relevance in the modern society. Rather than summarizing Höfer’s ideas, I intended to bring out the nuances and analyses which can aid in the understanding of caste from the perspective of doxa and habitus. Despite the government’s efforts to eradicate caste based discrimination through various laws and by-laws, the rules in MA of 1854 are still embedded in the minds of people. Through the perspective of power, habitus and doxa, I attempt to explain how the caste based discrimination still creeps into the modern Nepal as a quotidian affair. In this article, I also critique some of the conundrums that exists in the book as well as the MA. </em></p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prabhas Pokharel