Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2022-12-31T17:23:57+00:00 Mr Man Bahadur Khattri Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Dhawalagiri Multiple Campus, Baglung, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Dhaulagiri Journal is now accepting online submissions. Please <a title="Register" href="" target="_self">register</a> with the journal to submit your articles. If you experience any problems registering please contact the editor <a href=""></a></p> <p class="Pa2"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>. DJSA does not charge article processing fees. No fee is charged for submission and processing articles to this journal</p> <p class="Pa2">Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> Editorial Notes 2022-12-31T17:23:57+00:00 Man Bahadur Khattri <p>We are happy to publish the 16th volume of the Journal to our readers with a new section on Research Methodology. We hope our valued readers will benefit from the added section.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Man Bahadur Khattri A Note on Survey Research Methods Levels of Measurement: Foundational Basis for Quantitative Analysis of Survey Data 2022-12-31T07:05:52+00:00 Prem Bhandari <p>This research note briefly describes the levels of measurement of variables and their applications in the quantitative analysis of survey data. It first presents the concept of the measurement of variables. Second, the four levels of measurements, namely, nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio, with examples are offered. Then, the application of these measurement levels to the statistical analysis of data at the univariate (descriptive statistics), bivariate, and multivariate (e.g., binary logistic and multiple linear regression) levels are discussed. This note is expected to be useful to the beginning (naïve) scholars for real-world application of statistical tools to analyze survey data.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prem Bhandari Interview with Gregory G. Maskarinec 2022-12-31T16:10:59+00:00 Madhusudan Subedi Man Bahadur Khattri <p>Professor Gregory G. Maskarinec (May 16, 1951-June 16, 2022) was a member of the International Advisory Board of the Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology and Professor and Director at the Office of Global Health and International Medicine, Departments of Native Hawaiian Health and Family Medicine and Community Health John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i. He came to Nepal, in 1977, as a Peace Corps Volunteer and served as a mathematics teacher in a school in the Jajarkot District. He explored Nepali society and culture and received his MA and PhD in shamanism. He has published several books and papers on shamanism, including "The Rulings of the Night: An Ethnography of Nepalese Shaman Oral Texts". In 1981, he won Tribhuvan University's Mahendra Scholarship and received a highly prestigious prize (the Birendra Pranyalankar) from the late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev. In addition to his significant contributions to Medical Anthropology, Prof. Gregory was a nature-lover, peaceful, devoted to generating and sharing knowledge, and supportive. He had good relationships with high-level scholars, literature artists, and politicians of Nepal. He also participated in literature festivals in rural areas and promoted local arts and artists. He had visited more than 70 districts of Nepal. Prof. Gregory suffered from cancer and had several operations done. In August 2020, he passed away from COVID-19. We are grateful to him for allowing us to publish his interview in our Journal. The interview captured his ideas, thoughts, understanding of anthropology, works in Nepal, and personal life. For the sustainability of the Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, at the end of his life, he donated US$ 5000. The journal family is always grateful for his invaluable contribution</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Madhusudan Subedi, Man Bahadur Khattri Social Inequality and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal 2022-12-29T08:49:11+00:00 Om Gurung <p>Equality is perceived as the backbone of a democratic society. But inequality, whether horizontal or vertical and objective or perceived, exists even in a democratic society and Nepal is not an exception. The political mission of the Nepali state is to create an equal and inclusive society by eliminating all forms of discrimination and oppression created by the feudal, autocratic, centralized, and unitary state on the ground of origin, race, religion, caste, class, language, gender, and geographical specificities and protect and promote unity in diversity, social solidarity, and cultural harmony. To achieve its mission, the government has introduced various laws/bylaws and pursued various policy measures and development programs, such as social inclusion and affirmative action, as remedies for discrimination and inequality. However, these laws, policies, and programs have not led discriminated and marginalized communities to equality and social justice as they continue to remain discriminated against and unequal. In this paper, I argue that discrimination and inequality in Nepal is a structural problem, for Nepal is a hierarchically stratified society based on caste. In such a caste-based hierarchically stratified society, discrimination, inequality, and injustice cannot be removed easily without the state’s strong intervention with appropriate social measures. In this context, all laws/bylaws, policies, and programs initiated and introduced by the government are to mask the problems of discrimination and inequality and disguise indigenous peoples and marginalized communities. They are part of remedies, not an end-all cure. These partial remedies are neither adequate nor effective and appropriate to address grievances of historically discriminated indigenous and other marginalized communities. As a result, Nepal is still in a state of ethnic conflict. I have substantiated my arguments with empirical evidence (primarily qualitative data), which I have collected from ethnographic field research. I have also used quantitative data from secondary sources which is essential to supplement my qualitative data. </p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prof. Dr. Om Gurung Violence and Order in the Activities of Nepalese Shamans 2022-12-30T11:37:46+00:00 Gregory G. Maskarinec <p>When abuses of power are committed by those of unchallenged authority, how can justice be established? In the previous century's still-feudal society of Western Nepal, one way to seek justice was to commit ritual suicide, becoming a "vengeance suicide" that would plague the oppressor. "Vengeance suicides" are one prominent class of supernatural forces among many that shamans command as they seek to manipulate the order in the world, whether to re-establish or disrupt it. After recounting some well-known stories of these suicides, I seek to place them within the broader context of the many unseen forces that blacksmith shamans insist they can manipulate. The taxonomy of such forces I use here is a mantra that shamans recite at the beginning of any ceremony while heating his drum to improve its membrane's tension. Heating that tension is an apt metaphor for the violence seen as necessary to reorder or disorder the world, as explored here. </p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gregory G. Maskarinec Opportunities and Challenges of Implementing Federal Health System in Nepal at the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic 2022-12-30T08:06:22+00:00 Sadikshya Bhattarai Amit Arjyal Madhusudan Subedi <p>Nepal has been practicing the federal system in health since the promulgation of the constitution in 2015. The new three-tier system of one federal, seven provincial and 753 local governments have set up ministries, departments, and health units at each level. Less than four years into this system, the country faced the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic created both opportunities and challenges for the federal health system. This study aims to identify those factors from the viewpoint of implementers of the health system. After an extensive literature review, exploratory qualitative research was carried out with twenty public health workers and elected representatives from all the tiers of government, including the federal ministry and governments of Lumbini Province. The data was analyzed using the R package for Qualitative Data Analysis (RQDA). Thematic analysis was performed using the World Health Organization’s six building blocks of the health system as an analytical framework. The participants highlighted many opportunities after federalization in Nepal. The presence of government closer to people helped to make policies and plans as per local needs. Decentralized power to make decisions at the local level made human and financial resources readily available to local governments leading to better service delivery at the time of need. In contrast, the challenges were difficulty transiting into the new system of governance, poor coordination among the different government tiers, and the lack of local expertise to manage and lead the health system during severe constraints posed by the global pandemic of an unprecedented nature. The study showed that the federalization in Nepal has met the goals of devolution of the power structure and better health system management. However, there are specific areas of improvement to ensure a more functional health system.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sadikshya Bhattarai, Amit Arjyal , Madhusudan Subedi Labor Policy in Nigeria: Evolution, Trends and Implications for Industrial Relations 2022-12-30T08:20:22+00:00 Samuel Ayodeji Omolawal <p>This theoretical paper examines how Nigerian governments (Military and Democratic) over the years, have intervened in industrial relations through the promulgation of various labor decrees/laws since the inception of trade unionism in Nigeria. Relying on secondary materials, the paper takes a look at the various labor policies/enactments, the philosophy behind their promulgation, and also the effects on the Nigerian industrial relations set-up. Focusing on the major provisions of the 2005 labor policy, and using the pluralist and conflict perspectives and trade unions in two vital sectors of the economy, (Education and Health) as case studies, the paper argues that the current labor policy is an attempt to destabilize and weaken trade unions and that the current pattern in Nigeria’s industrial relations can be seen in the context of systemic tension and contradiction, a situation which arises as a result of the survival strategists adopted by all stakeholders in the industrial relations context and system. The paper concludes that as a partner in the tripartite relationship, trade unions have important roles to play in the management of the economy, and the Nigerian government should adopt a sustainable tripartism that would benefit from the practice of an ideology of social engagement and open willingness for others to share in its responsibility.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Samuel Ayodeji Omolawal Discourse on Land in Kathmandu 2022-12-30T08:37:03+00:00 Mahesh Raj Maharjan <p>With increasing migration, commodification of land, and urbanization in Kathmandu, there is growing interaction and antagonism between local landowners and groups who wish to own land, which has generated a discourse about land. This paper considers perceptions, beliefs, practices, and policies about land as discourse on land. Such discourse included meanings and uses of land. On discourse about landownership, land seekers think that Newars do not need the land that they are historically owning, and land brokers (dalāls) are suggesting landowners to sell land and build houses or live off on the interest of the money by depositing it in the bank. Dalāls act not only as intermediaries between owners and buyers in the land market but as amplifiers and communicators, and often as creators, of discourse. The physical and socio-economic environment of Kathmandu is changing in such a way that landowners are unable to hold, or hold for long, their land, and they are becoming increasingly influenced by the discourse that land is a high-value commodity that should be sold. Such discourse can be explained by the political economic theory that considers the city as a growth machine that commodifies space for private profit-making and capital accumulation.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mahesh Raj Maharjan Whose Knowledge Counts? A Reflection on the Field Narratives of Indigenous Health Knowledge and Practices 2022-12-30T08:50:06+00:00 Bamdev Subedi <p>Today's world is increasingly recognizing the value of indigenous knowledge and expressing concern over its erosion. The protection of indigenous knowledge has been a global policy priority. This paper draws from a qualitative study conducted in a village setting in South-West Nepal and aims to reflect on the local narratives of the erosion of indigenous health knowledge and practices (IHKPs). Data were collected from healers, patients, and key informants using interview and observation methods and analyzed thematically. The findings are organized in five broad themes: (i) The context of socio-economic change, (ii) Existing health knowledge and practices, (iii) A decline in herbal literacy and home remedy, (iv) Market influence, increased healthcare options, and the shrinking role of traditional healers, and (v) Value perceptions of indigenous knowledge. Though IHKPs remain an inseparable part of community life, the field narratives strongly indicate a decline in home and community-based health practices and an intergenerational loss of herbal knowledge. Taking insight from the critical medical anthropological perspective, this paper discusses the micro-experience and macro-influence and argues for recognizing the health knowledge of indigenous communities. The recognition of knowledge should be a political and policy decision in protecting and promoting IHKPs.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bamdev Subedi Inequality in Post Earthquake Reconstruction: An Ethnographic Account of a Peri-urban Locality in the Northern Part of Kathmandu 2022-12-29T09:21:36+00:00 Kumar Prasad Aryal <p>Scholars have carried out studies on different dimensions of the 2015 earthquakes. However, inequality in reconstruction has not been understood sufficiently in the context of Nepal. Taking this issue into consideration, this paper explores the issues of inequality in the reconstruction of private houses of different classes and caste/ethnic groups during the recovery from the earthquake. Based on this context study focuses on the behavioral and organizational response approach to disaster to handle the reconstruction process. This research was conducted in Dharmasthali of Kathmandu district in April 2016. The study adopted an ethnographic approach based on both primary and secondary sources. Data was collected through participant observation, in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, and informal discussions with earthquake victims, and representatives of government officials and different community-based organizations. Immediately after the earthquake, victims built temporary shelters either on their own or with support from state and non-state actors. The temporary shelters built by the people revealed the unequal capacity of the victims for reconstruction and also existing social inequality. The study shows that the poorer sections of the community bear the significant impact of disasters like earthquakes. Those with access to resources can construct their homes easily, but the poor face significant challenges in reconstruction. The study concludes that during disasters there is a need for government assistance to be generous and rules to be sufficiently flexible to enable the poorer victims to reconstruct their homes and lives.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kumar Prasad Aryal Striving for Urban Space: A Case of Street Vendors of Pokhara, Nepal 2022-12-30T07:58:04+00:00 Namrata Khawas <p>Street vending is an important component of the informal economy of a city. It forms the major base of livelihood for a significant proportion of the urban poor. Embedded with the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological realm of urban anthropology and the right to the city, this article assesses vendors’ striving for subsistence livelihoods amidst the increased rigidness of local authorities towards them in Pokhara. Based on qualitative data collected through the ethnographic fieldwork carried out in the market centers of Pokhara Metropolitan City, this article documents the struggle of women street vendors against challenges posed by metropolis authority and their police, customers, and shopkeepers. As captured in stories, they strive against these challenges to support their livelihood. Their ceaseless striving for urban space for undertaking vending practices continues. The tireless engagement of the street vendors in coping with the adversities created by different agencies is an indication that they have been claiming certain kinds of rights over urban space in Pokhara City.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Namrata Khawas Pay-Based Gender Discrimination in Private School: Four Cases of Kathmandu, Nepal 2022-12-30T11:48:17+00:00 Binda Khatri <p>Unfair treatment based on sex is considered gender discrimination. Gender discrimination in the workplace has always existed, and the pay gap is a prominent topic worldwide. This paper investigates and provides information on the condition of the pay gap in private schools in Kathmandu valley. Four private schools in Bansbari, Kathmandu, were selected for the research. Out of 139 teachers at the selected schools, 28 female and 20 male teachers were selected for this research using the snowball sampling method. A questionnaire was administered to gather information. The open code analysis of the open-ended questionnaire showed that there was inequality in salary distribution. Remuneration differed not only by employees' working hours and qualifications but also by gender. This paper discusses how gender biases are prevalent in academia.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Binda Khatri Corruption and Underdevelopment in Nepal: A Content Analysis 2022-12-31T06:54:34+00:00 Dipesh Kumar Ghimire <p>Many studies show that corruption negatively affects public investment, reduces government revenue, misuses public resources, and decreases expenditure and quality of life for the people. It is also considered the leading cause behind the low quality of infrastructure, damaging social, economic, political, and infrastructural development. Similarly, corruption also hinders development because it distorts resources affecting economic growth and service delivery. So, corruption and underdevelopment have a positive correlation. Corruption has been a major driving force behind underdevelopment in many countries. This article is written based on secondary data. The content of news published in newspapers was analyzed during the study. This paper reveals the prevalence of high levels of corruption in the governance system and development activities is the main reason behind the underdevelopment in Nepal.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dipesh Kumar Ghimire Development Defect: A Case Study on Destroying Indigeneity of Majhi Community 2022-12-31T04:36:51+00:00 Saroj Raj Panta <p>Majhis have coped with marginal resources in the Neoliberal economic context and are facing many problems. This article focuses on the Majhi people and their livelihood transformation from traditional occupation. The main objectives of this study are to explore the present condition of the Majhi people in Baglung and how they got into their traditional profession. This study adopts qualitative data based on observations, case studies, and in-depth interviews through primary and secondary sources of literature review. Majhi people have coped with marginal resources in the Neoliberal economic context and facing many problems. They usually change their traditional occupations to boating, selling firewood, gold mining, and fishing. There are forced to change their livelihoods due to globalization. Modern means of transportation and limited income are insufficient to fulfill their basic needs. They face social, economic, and physical difficulties in their daily lives. Globalization and modern modes of transportation present them with more challenges and fewer opportunities because of the construction of the Pokhara-Baglung highway. Majhi people have not been able to easily grasp opportunities for political, social, and educational changes due to a lack of education after abandoning their traditional occupation and living place due to the construction of Pokhara- Baglung highway. This paper will be valuable for policy maker and, future researchers, and academia as well.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Saroj Raj Panta