BIBECHANA <p>BIBECHANA: A multidisciplinary journal of Science, Technology, and Mathematics is published by the Department of Physics, Mahendra Morang A.M. College, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar, Nepal. Full-text articles are available. BIBECHANA does <strong>not</strong> charge authors article processing charges, submission fees, or any other kind of fee.</p> <p>Articles in BIBECHANA are published only online. The printed version (hard copy) of the journal is not available.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Department of Physics, Mahendra Morang A.M. College, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar, Nepal en-US BIBECHANA 2091-0762 Zirconium modified pomegranate peel for efficient removal of arsenite from water <p>We developed a novel biosorbent based on zirconium-modified pomegranate peel (SPP@Zr) for efficient arsenic (As(III)) removal from water. SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR were used to characterize the prepared biosorbent. The batch adsorption method was used to evaluate the adsorption viability of biosorbents for the removal of As(III) from water. The EDX analysis of saponified pomegranate peels (SPP) before and after Zr (IV) loading demonstrated that ion exchange was the preferred metal loading technique. As (III) adsorption is very pH-dependent, with the maximum adsorption occurring at pH 8.0. The maximum As(III) adsorption capacity of SPP@Zr was found to be 82.0 mg/g. According to isotherm and kinetic modeling studies, the experimental results fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic modeling. The spent biosorbent may be easily regenerated and reused using an alkaline solution. Hence, SPP@Zr is proving to be a promising biosorbent for uptake of As (III) from water.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022)1-13</p> Bhoj Raj Poudel Dhan Shree Ale Ram Lochan Aryal Kedar Nath Ghimire Surendra Kumar Gautam Hari Paudyal Megh Raj Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Bhoj Raj Poudel, Dhan Shree Ale, Ram Lochan Aryal, Kedar Nath Ghimire, Surendra Kumar Gautam, Hari Paudyal, Megh Raj Pokhrel 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 1 13 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.45943 Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic rhizome extract of Bergenia pacumbis: A valuable medicinal herb <p><em>Bergenia pacumbis</em>, a perennial herb of the Saxifragaceae family, usually referred to as ‘Pashanbheda’ is geographically distributed within the temperate Himalaya including Nepal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis as well as <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic rhizome extract of <em>B. pacumbis</em>. The rhizome of <em>B. pacumbis</em> was extracted in methanol using the Soxhlet apparatus and then the extract was concentrated. The rhizome extract was tested for phytochemicals using the standard protocol. The <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using the 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) values of ascorbic acid and <em>B. pacumbis</em> were found to be 11.91 ± 0.03 μg/mL and 11.99 ± 0.05 μg/mL respectively that indicate <em>B. pacumbis</em> is a good source of antioxidant agents. The extract was further tested for antibacterial activity through the agar well diffusion method and found to be effective against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (16 mm) and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (12 mm). The present study validates the traditional use of <em>B. pacumbis</em>.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 14-26</p> Subas Dangi Niranjan Parajuli Copyright (c) 2022 Subas Dangi, Niranjan Parajuli 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 14 26 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.45963 Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Oxalis corniculata Leaves of Sindhupalchowk District, Nepal <p>The <em>Oxalis corniculata</em> (Oxalidaceae) is one of the most potential medicinal herbs and well known for multiple therapeutic properties (anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic and diuretic activity). This study investigated phytoconstituents, antibacterial activity and antioxidant activity of <em>Oxalis corniculata</em> leaves extract. Methanol based phytochemical screening of <em>Oxalis corniculata </em>revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides. The antibacterial activity revealed better potential inhibitory effect against gram-negative bacteria, particularly <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi</em> compared to <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, a gram-positive bacterium. However, 1% methanol extract showed highest antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli</em> followed by <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Salmonella typhi.</em> Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging showed antioxidant activities with 3.87 µg/mL IC<sub>50 </sub>value.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 27-33</p> Kamala Pandey Shanta Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Kamala Pandey, Shanta Pokhrel 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 27 33 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46094 Application of absorption of infra-red radiation and reflection spectra to distinguish different inks of same color in alteration <p>The main aim of this study is to introduce non-destructive method to distinguish different types of ink of same color. In our daily life, we face many problems of alteration of genuine documents. Such alteration is done by using same color of ink as used in the document. It is not possible to differentiate the altered part by our naked eyes. There are many methods, destructive as well as non-destructive methods, to solve the problem of alteration. We have discussed the non-destructive method using Video Spectral Comparator (VSC)-6000. Analysis is carried out with application of infra-red (IR) radiation of different wavelength and reflection spectra to reach the conclusion. Absorption of infra-red (IR) radiation is found very effective whereas use of reflection spectra is totally failed in this experiment.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 34-39</p> Roshan Giri Shanker Prasad Chimouriya Bal Ram Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 Roshan Giri, Shanker Prasad Chimouriya, Bal Ram Ghimire 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 34 39 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46380 A mixed-mode ginger and turmeric solar dryer: design, simulation, biochemical and performance analysis <p>Postharvest loss of vegetables and fruits is higher in developing countries due to the lack of post-processing equipment. Although the production of ginger and turmeric is high in Nepal, farmers practices open sun drying, which leads to poor quality, and the products do not get to the market at reasonable prices. In this study, a simple, easy to assemble and disassemble mixed-mode solar dryer has been designed, fabricated, and biochemical and performance analyses were done. The dryer was designed considering the solar irradiation, sunshine hours, latitude of the location, locally available materials, moisture content (MC) of the product, and drying capacity. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using ANSYS Fluent simulation software to predict the dryer’s temperature and air flow behavior. The experiment was carried out in November in the harvesting season of ginger. The dryer performance is compared with the open sun drying using ginger and turmeric. The biochemical properties such as Oleoresin and Essential oil were determined using Soxhlet and Steam distillation methods and compared with the product of open sun drying. The experiment results showed that ginger and turmeric took only about 14 sunshine hours to reach from 88% to 10-12% moisture content. The maximum collector and drying efficiency were recorded at about 45.32% and 31.364%, respectively. The temperature distribution inside the dryer obtained from the experiment correlated with the results obtained from the CFD analysis. The retention of essential oil was found more in product drying with dryer than open sun drying. Among the various drying models, Wang and Singh model was found suitable for describing the drying model. It is concluded that the designed dryer is suitable for ginger and turmeric drying into a safe moisture level, ensuring product quality.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2021) 40-60</p> Manoj Gyawali Ayusha Acharya Tikaram Adhikari Kiran Dahal Bhooshan Kafle Dae Hyun Kim Sagar Kafle Copyright (c) 2022 Manoj Gyawali, Ayusha Acharya, Tikaram Adhikari, Kiran Dahal, Bhooshan Kafle, Dae Hyun Kim, Sagar Kafle 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 40 60 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46386 Correlation between the Magnetic and DC resistivity studies of Cu substituted Ni and Zn in Ni-Zn ferrites <p>Cu substituted Ni<sub>0.5-x</sub>Cu<sub>x</sub>Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4 </sub>(x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) samples is synthesized using the sol-gel auto-combustion process. They have a cubic spinel structure with crystallite size in the range of 29.01–42.68 nm. The increment in the copper content increases the DC conductivity. The electrical resistivity decrease with an increase in the temperature i.e. it has a negative temperature coefficient with resistance similar to semiconductors. The remnant ratios R obtained from VSM show their isotropic nature forming single domain ferrimagnetic particles. The results are compared with Ni<sub>0.5</sub>Cu<sub>x</sub>Zn<sub>0.5-x</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4 </sub>(x = 0 to 0.25). The resultant material Cu substituted Zn is more significant than that of Ni as indicated by its results and previous literature.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 61-67</p> <p><em> </em></p> D. Parajuli N. Murali K. Samatha Copyright (c) 2022 D. Parajuli, N. Murali, K. Samatha 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 61 67 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46387 Study preferred alignments of angular momentum vector of i – magnitude SDSS galaxies having redshift 0.54 – 0.60 <p>We present a study of the three-dimensional orientation of spin vector of i – magnitude having higher redshift ranging from 0.54 to 0.60 with respect to the equilateral co-ordinate system. The main aim of this work is to know the orientation and projection of the spin vector of distant galaxies. The database is taken from SDSS 14<sup>th</sup> data release (DR-14) and this redshift range contains 239,209 galaxies. SDSS provides two – dimensional observed data, we convert it into three-dimension rotation axes of the galaxy with the help of the ‘position angle inclination method’. The expected isotropy distribution curves are obtained by removing the selection effects and performing a random simulation generating 10<sup>7</sup> virtual galaxies. To check, isotropy or anisotropy we have to carry out four statistical tests: chi-square, auto-correlation coefficient, first-order Fourier series, and First-order Fourier probability. In the study, we observed random orientation of spin vector of galaxies in all twenty samples and supported a strongly Hierarchy model of galaxy evolution. Also, the projection of spin vector is found to be isotropic in samples i01, i02, i03, i16, i17, i18, i19, and i20 and the remaining samples i04 to i15 are seen as local anisotropic due to the merging phenomenon of galaxies and tidal effect. This shows the problem in a coordinate system.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 68-74</p> Shiv Shankar Prasad Sah Shiv Narayan Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Shiv Shankar Prasad Sah, Shiv Narayan Yadav 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 68 74 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46389 Exponential Temperature-Dependent Parameters for Thermodynamic and Structural Properties of Al-Ti Melt <p>Thermodynamic and structural properties of Al-Ti melt have been estimated in the framework of Redlich-Kister (R-K) polynomial using linear temperature-dependent (T-dependent) interaction parameters above melting temperatures. These calculations show the existence of the artificial inverted miscibility gaps (artifacts) at temperatures 2000 K, 2500 K, and 2700 K. Therefore, interaction parameters are assumed to vary exponentially with temperature and have been optimised for excess free energy of mixing. The artifacts do not appear in the calculation of these properties of the concerned alloy when these optimized parameters are used.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 75-82</p> R. K. Gohivar S. K. Yadav R. P. Koirala D. Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 R.K. Gohivar, S.K. Yadav, R.P. Koirala, D. Adhikari 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 75 82 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46392 Real-Time Traffic Prediction Using Monte Carlo Simulation: A Case Study of Kantipath Road, Kathmandu, Nepal <p>This paper deals with the model development for the analysis of traffic data to improve efficiency and sustainability of the existing transportation system of a section of the Kantipath road, Kaiser Library to Jamal. The traffic data of the two extreme locations of the section of the road were taken using digital video recorders. The data were extracted manually and statistically analyzed to test the different statistical distribution of traffic flow using Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk test, and to find out different categories of vehicles along with their flow and peak hour. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test reveals the traffic flow distribution is the same as Cauchy, Normal, Inverse Gaussian, Logistic, Gamma, and Beta distributions. The dataset of Kaiser Library was used to predict the real-time traffic flow of Jamal employing Monte Carlo Simulation in accordance to normal distribution. The forecasted and observed traffic flows show better agreement<em>.</em></p> <p><em>BIBECHANA</em> <em>19 (2022) 83-89</em></p> Niraj Kumar Shah Prena Chaudhary Gopi Chandra Kaphle Copyright (c) 2022 Niraj Kumar Shah, Prena Chaudhary, Gopi Chandra Kaphle 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 83 89 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46394 Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by Chemical Method and its Structural and Optical Characterization <p>In this report, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was synthesized by chemical method using Zinc Acetate dehydrate [Zn(CH<sub>3</sub>COO)<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O)] as precursors and Ethanol and distilled water as solvent. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was used to maintain the pH and helps to establish the NPs. The NPs are characterized by XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy and SEM image analysis. The XRD characterization gives the polycrystalline nature of ZnO NPs with the size ~23 nm and ~27 nm calculated by Scherrer’s method and Williamson–Hall method respectively. The crystalline size of these NPs calculated using XRD pattern is validated by SEM image analysis. Using the UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Tauc plot method, the optical band gap of ZnO is found to be 3.35 eV. The uniform size distribution of NPs shown in SEM image and strong UV absorption shown in UV-Visible spectra indicate that thus prepared NPs are highly desirable for photo-catalytic activity and detection applications.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 90-96</p> Rishi Ram Ghimire Ashutosh Parajuli Suresh Kumar Gupta Krishna Bahadur Rai Copyright (c) 2022 Rishi Ram Ghimire, Ashutosh Parajuli, Suresh Kumar Gupta, Krishna Bahadur Rai 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 90 96 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46396 Structural and Electronic Properties of Intercalated Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Compounds <p>The structural and electronic properties of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Compound (TMDC) TiS<sub>2</sub> and its intercalated compound like FeTiS<sub>2 </sub>are reported in the present work using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) with ultrasoft pseudopotential are used under Quantum ESPRESSO code. From the theoretical data, it is concluded that, the energy band structure of the TiS<sub>2</sub> material has been a small indirect band gap and possess a semiconductor characteristic. While the doped intercalated compound like FeTiS<sub>2</sub>, the energy bands are overlapped in the Fermi region, which possess metallic characteristics. Also, FeTiS<sub>2</sub> is a ferromagnetic material with spin up and spin down nature observed from the band structure data.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 97-101</p> Vandana B. Parmar Aditya M. Vora Copyright (c) 2022 Vandana B. Parmar, Aditya M. Vora 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 97 101 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46397 Analysis of SARSCOV-2 Cases in Nepal using Different Models <p>The world has faced many epidemics during its evolution of human civilization from the influenza epidemic in 1200 BC, to severe acute respiratory syndrome SARSCOV-2 in 2019, each epidemic has become fatal and people have died from thousands to millions. The epidemic pattern of COVID-19 in Nepal is analyzed and predicted using the Exponential, Logistic, SIR (Susceptible Infectious Recovered), and SIRD (Susceptible Infectious Recovered Deceased) models. The cumulative instances of an outbreak rise exponentially at first, described by the exponential model but there is a point of inflection after some time where the curve nearly turns linear which is predicted by the logistic model. The SIR and SIRD models are used to anticipate the number of cumulative cases of COVID-19 for the 400 days based on information supplied by the Ministry of Health and Population. Based on real-time data and data from our simulation, we can conclude that by strengthening the efficiency of social isolation and lockdown, we could significantly reduce the spread of COVID-19 in our country.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 102-110</p> Oat Bahadur Dhakal Roshan Chalise Raju Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 Oat Bahadur Dhakal, Roshan Chalise, Raju Khanal 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 102 110 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46400 He2+ impact single ionization cross sections of Cu atom <p>Semi-classical binary encounter approximation has been used for theoretical calculations of single ionization cross sections of Cu atom at ground state by alpha particle impact in energy range varying from threshold 35 keV/amu to 425 keV/amu. An accurate expression of cross section for energy transfer ΔΕ (σ<sub>ΔΕ</sub>) as given by Vriens and quantum mechanical Hartree-Fock velocity distributions for target electrons have been used in the calculation. Major contribution to the total single ionization cross sections of Cu are from 4s and 3d subshells. The ionization cross sections decrease with the increase of impact energy same as experimental data reported. The theoretical and experimental results of single ionization cross sections have same trends against the increase of impact energy. The ratio factor falls within 2, varying from 1.26 to 1.86, for given energy range. Theoretical results are under valid range. About 50% of total theoretical results of single ionization cross sections have ratio factor (R) . Major contribution to total ionization cross section is from 3d and 4s subshells-electrons whose contributions varies from 62 to 71% and 41.7% to 23.8% respectively. The higher value of linear correlation coefficient (=0.9647) and lower value of standard deviation (=0.822) shows that results calculated are close to the experimental data in the intermediate and high energy range.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 111-118</p> S. P. Gupta K. Yadav L. K. Jha Copyright (c) 2022 S.P. Gupta, K. Yadav, L.K. Jha 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 111 118 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46401 Development of construction materials from the geopolymerization of red clay and coal fly ash <p>Red clay contains solid aluminosilicate has been shown to be reactive in the presence of an alkaline activator. The addition of coal fly ash and lime has shown improvements in their mechanical and physical properties of the geopolymer products. FTIR analysis and SEM images of the product have shown the formation of aluminosilicate gel in the geopolymeric product. The maximum compressive strength of the geopolymer products GP-RFL was achieved to be 15.92 N/mm<sup>2</sup> having water absorption of 10.47 % and bulk density 2.81 g/cm<sup>3</sup>. These results indicated that geopolymer mortars made from red clay, coal fly ash and lime could be used as an alternative construction material./p&gt;</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 119-126</p> Arvind Pathak Arpana Ranjit Bijaya Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 Arvind Pathak, Arpana Ranjit, Bijaya Dhakal 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 119 126 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46403 Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of Double Perovskites Ca2MnIrO6 <p>Using the density functional theory formalism, electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskites Ca<sub>2</sub>MnIrO<sub>6 </sub>are investigated. We found ferrimagnetic ground state with half-metallic nature in Ca<sub>2</sub>MnIrO<sub>6</sub>. The electron-correlation, crystal distortion, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays significant role in dictating the electronic properties in this system. From the density of states calculations, a strong hybridization were noted between O-2p, Ir-5d and Mn-3d states resulting Ca<sub>2</sub>MnIrO<sub>6 </sub>to half-metal (HM) with metallic state in spin up channel and insulating state in spin-down channel. The HM state persists even when SOC is taken into account, though the spin-polarization reduces slightly. We thus predict Ca<sub>2</sub>MnIrO<sub>6 </sub> as a new HM ferrimagnet which can be useful for modern technological applications. We further investigated the Curie temperature of Ca<sub>2</sub>MnIrO<sub>6 </sub> by calculating the spin-exchange coupling parameters. Our results are found to be comparable with other perovskites.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 127-132</p> Shalika Ram Bhandari Sarita Lawaju Santosh KC Gopi Chandra Kaphle Madhav Prasad Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 Shalika Ram Bhandari, Sarita Lawaju, Santosh KC, Gopi Chandra Kaphle, Madhav Prasad Ghimire 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 127 132 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46404 Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from the high-altitude medicinal plants Rhododendron anthopogen, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora and Rheum australe of Nepal <p>Silver nanoparticles have been massively applied in the medical field including microbial population controls. Green synthesis of AgNPs is more intriguing domain due to possessing environmentally and economically friendly properties. For this experiment, we prepared AgNPs taking the methanolic extract of high altitude medicinal plants namely <em>Rhododendron anthopogen, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora </em>and <em>Rheum australe</em> and antibacterial and antioxidant activity were observed. The biosynthesized AgNPs was confirmed using techniques UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and XRD. Thus, prepared AgNPs demonstrated surface plasmon peak at wavelength nearly 430 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy date explained the role of functional groups in forming stable AgNPs and XRD pattern revealed that the silver nanoparticles were face-centered, cubic and crystalline in nature. The green synthesis of AgNPs working as an antibacterial agent was assessed by zone of inhibition against four readily available bacterial strain <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia </em>and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and DPPH method is used to calculate antioxidant activity. Taken all together, the highest antioxidant activity IC<sub>50</sub> 69.84±0.03 μg/mL was exhibited by the silver nanoparticles of <em>R. australe</em> and the highest inhibition zone measuring16 mm was calculated by <em>N. scrophulariiflora against S. aureus.</em></p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 133-141</p> Rachana Regmi Mitesh Shrestha Dilip Karki Ram Chandra Poudel Megh Raj Banjara Deegendra Khadka Copyright (c) 2022 Rachana Regmi, Mitesh Shrestha, Dilip Karki, Ram Chandra Poudel, Megh Raj Banjara, Deegendra Khadka 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 133 141 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46406 Dichotomization of quantitative variables in poverty analysis <p>It has been proposed four schemes of dichotomization for the four household level quantitative variables – area of land holding, geographic accessibility to the nearest market centre, number of children under 15 and number of literate members of working-age – with justification in the selection of threshold value for each variable to dichotomize into disadvantaged and advantaged group of households using the Nepal Living Standard Survey 2010/11 data with 5988 households and 28,670 of their household members. Association of each dichotomized variable with household level poverty status (poor/non-poor) was found highly significant. Finally, the proposed schemes of dichotomization have tested empirically for their ability to differentiate the poor people into two categories - ‘more vulnerable’ and ‘less vulnerable’ - by fist estimating the three measures of poverty – head count index, poverty gap index and squared poverty gap index - of each group of population and comparing the estimated measures between the disadvantaged and advantaged group of populations. Statistical analysis has been performed by using IBM SPSS version 20. To a large extent the proposed schemes of dichotomization have found to differentiate the poor people into two groups; for example, the head count index of the disadvantaged group of the number of children under 15 is 3.1 times higher than that of the advantaged group. The results of this paper are expected to be useful to the policy makers and development planners of Nepal for focusing their poverty reduction program towards the more vulnerable group of population as well as academician.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 142-149</p> Krishna Prasad Acharya Shanker Prasad Khanal Devendra Chhetry Copyright (c) 2022 Krishna Prasad Acharya, Shanker Prasad Khanal, Devendra Chhetry 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 142 149 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46407 Estimation of Global Solar Radiation (GSR) From the Sunshine Hour of Guranshe, Surkhet, Nepal <p>The variation in Global Solar Radiation (GSR) was studied by using experimental data via an automatic weather station (CMP3 pyranometer) located at Guranshe (Surkhet), a hilly area with elevation 2194m from the sea level. Also the estimated sunshine hour data of the area were used to calculate the GSR for the purpose of comparison with the measurements. Our study finds a good agreement between the measured (15.65 MJ/m<sup>2</sup>/day) and estimated/calculated (19.18 MJ/m<sup>2</sup>/day) values of annual average GSR. The estimated GSR uses Angstrom-Prescott type model for calculating sunshine hours, and the coefficients (<em>a=0.28)</em> and (<em>b=0.57)</em> were obtained using the Sangeetas and Tiwari model. The annual average estimated sunshine hours was found to be 6.86hr which is suitable for GSR based applications. The measured data were used to study the seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations of GSR. The maximum and minimum values of GSR were found during the spring and summer seasons respectively. The minimum GSR in summer is because of heavy rainfall, high relative humidity, and cloud formation in the sky during the time. The coefficient of regression(R) and the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) were obtained as R=0.881 and R<sup>2</sup>=0.776 respectively. Here the high value of R (88.1%) indicates that of dependent variable (GSR) is nicely predicted by the independent variables. Also the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) tells us the strength of the relationship between two variables.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 150-159</p> Homchandra Adhikari Nurapati Pantha Copyright (c) 2022 Homchandra Adhikari, Nurapati Pantha 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 150 159 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46408 Optimization of momentum of muon beam and thickness of cell-window for muon experiment in bio-sample: a simulation study <p>In order to study the bio-samples (aqueous solutions) using muon spin rotation and relaxation (mSR) method, the optimization of momentum of incident muon beam and selection of material for window of sample cell towards muon side are the initial steps for the mSR measurement. Rather than several experimental trials, we used to perform simulation study to optimize the momentum of muon beam and thickness of window of the sample cell. Monte Carlo simulation for optimization of momentum of monoenergetic surface muon beam in different material/thickness of window of the sample cell indicates that the Al or Kapton window of thickness less than 0.3 mm is suitable to maximize the intensity of the stopped muons (momentum between 25.8 MeV/c to 29.8 MeV/c) within 1 mm of water (bio-samples). This simulation will help to design the sample cell for the study of application of muon in life science.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19(2022)160-164</p> Amba Datt Pant Copyright (c) 2022 Amba Datt Pant 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 19 1-2 160 164 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46413 Energy Eigenvalue and Thermodynamic Properties of q-deformed Hulthen Potential <p>The objective of this work is to calculate the energy eigenvalue for q-deformed Hulthen potential using a Gaussian hypergeometric function with centrifugal approximation factor and related thermodynamical properties. For this, we develop a mathematical model using the Schrodinger wave equation to find the energy eigenvalue. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters were also calculated for q-deformed Hulthen potential using the partition function. The energy eigenvalue for quantum numbers n=1 to n=5 was observed for screening parameters 0.1, 0.5, and 1. In between, 0.1 to 1 and n=1 to n=2 the energy eigenvalue ranges from -1.048 to -208.572. The energy eigenvalue for considering potential shows that decrease with increasing the quantum number which means electron are loosely bounded nucleus in an atom. Also, the vibrational mean energy, vibrational mean free energy, vibrational specific heat capacity, and vibrational entropy are obtained but due to complexity, the further development of the equation is the limitation of this work.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19(2022)165-169</p> Bhishma Karki Saddam Husain Dhobi Jeevan Jyoti Nakarmi Kishori Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Bhishma Karki, Saddam Husain Dhobi, Jeevan Jyoti Nakarmi, Kishori Yadav 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 19 1-2 165 169 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46416 Remediation of Bagmati River water using activated carbon from Macrotyloma uniflorum (gram horse) seed <p>Remediation is a technique that facilitates the removable of pollutants from contaminated water. Activated carbons were prepared from indigenous Macrotyloma uniflorum (gram horse) seed using orthophosphoric acid as an activating agent. The chemically activated gram horse seed powder was carbonized using muffle furnace and characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titration, methylene blue and iodine numbers. XRD and FTIR spectra indicated that the surface of amorphous activated carbon consisted of acidic and basic functional groups which efficiently adsorb pollutants from the polluted river water. The observed methylene blue and iodine numbers suggested that an impregnation ratio of 1.26:1, three hours of carbonization duration and carbonization temperature of 300 °C were the optimum conditions for the development of micro and mesopores on the surface of the activated carbon prepared from gram horse powder. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue was 312.5 mg/g and that of iodine was 1006.2 mg/g and specific surface area was 1160.44 m<sup>2</sup> /g. The both Langmuir and Freundlich model fit well in the methylene blue adsorption. A simple column filtration was used for the purification of river water. Most of the observed water quality parameters of the sample collected from the Bagmati River exceeded the limit recommended by WHO. However, after treatment with gram horse activated carbon, concentrations of measured parameters were reduced to WHO recommended value. More than 60% of the hardness, sulphate and phosphate concentrations were removed and more than 40% of alkalinity and chlorine demand were reduced by activated carbon. Based on the results it is considered that activated carbon from gram horse seed can be an effectively used as bio-adsorbent for the remediation of highly polluted river water.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19(2022)170-183</p> Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari Janak Raj Bhatt Copyright (c) 2022 Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari, Janak Raj Bhatt 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 19 1-2 170 183 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46435 Substitutional Sodium Doping on Tungsten Ditelluride: A First-principles Study <p>Methylation at O6 atom of guanine is a type of DNA damage which can cause a cancer. This damage at O6 atom of guanine in a DNA can be transferred to SG atom of cysteine in O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Flipping out of methylated guanine from its base stack is essential to give off the methyl adduct (CH<sub>3</sub>) to AGT. AGT receives the methyl adduct at cysteine leaving guanine demethylated, but still in flipped out orientation. The repair mechanism of DNA would be completed only when the extrahelically flipped guanine returns back into the base stack, which is considered as the final step of the DNA repair mechanism. Here, the intrahelical flipping mechanism of repaired guanine has been studied. The work is further extended to examine the stability of hydrogen bonds between guanine and its pair partner cytosine. The overall result shows that intrahelical rotation of repaired guanine is possible and the base pairing is stable as the ordinary hydrogen bonding.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19(2022)184-194</p> Bibek Subedi Narayan Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Bibek Subedi, Narayan Adhikari 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 19 1-2 184 194 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46429 Micellization of sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence and absence of potassium sulphate and nickel sulphate <p>The effect of addition of salts on the micellization of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in aqueous medium has been studied by conductance measurement at 298.15 K. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) as well as thermodynamic properties was evaluated. From the premicellar and postmicellar slopes, the degree of dissociation (α) of SDS was also calculated. On adding the salts, CMC decreased whereas degree of dissociation increased. Employing these CMC and α values, the standard free energy of micellization was also evaluated. The negative values of was decreased when K<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> was added but increased when NiSO<sub>4</sub> was added.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19(2022)195-200</p> Jay Narayan Mitruka Keshab Ojha Arush Bhattarai Sadiksha Nepal Ajaya Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 Jay Narayan Mitruka, Keshab Ojha, Arush Bhattarai, Sadiksha Nepal, Ajaya Bhattarai 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 19 1-2 195 200 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46830 Flipping Back of Extrahelical Guanine after Methyl Repair <p>Methylation at O6 atom of guanine is a type of DNA damage which can cause a cancer. This damage at O6 atom of guanine in a DNA can be transferred to SG atom of cysteine in O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Flipping out of methylated guanine from its base stack is essential to give off the methyl adduct (CH<sub>3</sub>) to AGT. AGT receives the methyl adduct at cysteine leaving guanine demethylated, but still in flipped out orientation. The repair mechanism of DNA would be completed only when the extrahelically flipped guanine returns back into the base stack, which is considered as the final step of the DNA repair mechanism. Here, the intrahelical flipping mechanism of repaired guanine has been studied. The work is further extended to examine the stability of hydrogen bonds between guanine and its pair partner cytosine. The overall result shows that intrahelical rotation of repaired guanine is possible and the base pairing is stable as the ordinary hydrogen bonding.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 201-207</p> Rajendra Prasad Koirala Narayan Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Rajendra Prasad Koirala, Narayan Prasad Adhikari 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 19 1-2 201 207 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46430 Study on Electronic Properties of α-Uranium using Ab-initio Approach <p>In the present work, a density functional theory (DFT) based simulation is performed to study the electronic properties of (-uranium through the electronic band structure, total electron density of states (DOS), integrated density of states (IDOS), partial density of states (PDOS) and Fermi-surface measurements. A Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) with Projector-Augmented Wave (PAW) pseudopotential is used in present computation. The hybridization between the 5<em>f</em> orbital and 6<em>d</em> orbital also has fairly influences on the electronic Properties of α-Uranium.</p> <p>BIBECHANA 19 (2022) 208-213</p> Aditya M. Vora Copyright (c) 2022 Aditya M. Vora 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 19 1-2 208 213 10.3126/bibechana.v19i1-2.46838