Assessment of urban forest species preference and nursery use practice in Pokhara Metropolitan City


  • Madan Acharya Agriculture and Forestry University
  • Bibek Subedi Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara
  • Sagar Subedi Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara, Nepal



Greenery,, people’s response, plant nurseries, urban forest species


Pokhara is one of the rapidly urbanizing cities with declining trees and green spaces. It has become imperative to develop effective plans and strategies to maintain greenery in the city. There is little knowledge about the individual choice of urban tree species and how it shapes up the urban green spaces. This study was conducted in the Ward 17 of the Pokhara Metropolitan City to assess the people’s preferences and factors influencing their choices. Data collection was done through nursery survey (n=15), household survey (n=60), and site observation (n=12). The observed sites were parks, religious sites and streets of Ward-17 of the Pokhara Metropolitan City. Majority of the household were found to be practicing home gardens with exotic species which were more preferred than the indigenous ones. Altogether, 15 major species were recorded from the households, with Dhupi (Juniperus indica) being the most frequent species followed by Guava (Psidium guajava). A total of 48 tree species were recorded during site observation, with a maximum frequency of Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo). Among the six major factors for species selection, use and benefits derived from the species were detected as the most responsible ones. Nurseries provide seedlings mostly for individual purposes; however, financial and technical assistance should be provided to all the interested households with emphasis on the preferred type of species required for further development of urban forestry in the Pokhara Metropolitan City.


Download data is not yet available.


Aronson, M.F., Lepczyk, C.A., Evans, K.L., Goddard, M.A., Lerman, S.B., MacIvor, J.S., Nilon, C.H., & Vargo, T. (2017). Biodiversity in the city: Key challenges for urban green space management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 15 (4): 189–196.

Avolio, M.L., Pataki, D.E., Trammell, T.L.E., & Endter-Wada, J. (2018). Biodiverse cities: The nursery industry, homeowners, and neighborhood differences drive urban tree composition. Ecological Monographs, 88 (2): 259–276.

Bakrania, S. (2015). Urbanisation and urban growth in Nepal. Governance, Social Development, Humanitarian Response and Conflict (GSDRC), Applied Knowledge Services of University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Baral, S.R. & Kurmi, P.P. (2005). Assessing city beautification with plants: the Kathmandu perspective. Banko Janakari, 15 (1): 49–57.

Barron, S., Sheppard, S., Kozak, R., Dunster, K., Dave, K., Sun, D., & Rayner, J. (2021). What do they like about trees? Adding local voices to urban forest design and planning. Trees, Forests and People, (5): 100116.

Beatty, R.A., & Heckman, C.T. (1981). Survey of urban tree programs in the United States. Urban Ecology, 5 (2): 81–102.

CBS. (2022). Final Preliminary Report of Census 2021 Nepal. Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics.

Chen, R.Q. & Cheng, S.T. (2022). Detecting Nestedness in City Parks for Urban Biodiversity Conservation.

FAO. (2006). Urban and peri-urban forestry and greening in west and central Asia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 122.

Fort, M., Adhikari, B.R., & Rimal, B. (2018). Pokhara (Central Nepal): a dramatic yet geomorphologically active environment versus a dynamic, rapidly developing city. In Urban Geomorphology (pp. 231–258). Elsevier.

Goutam, K.R. (2018). Urban forestry in the federal context of Nepal. Banko Janakari, 28 (1): 1–2.

Gyawali, R.A. (2015). Urban forestry: status, people’s attitude and institutional involvement: a case study from Pokhara sub-metropolitan city. Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry.

Ives, C.D., Lentini, P. E., Threlfall, C.G., Ikin, K., Shanahan, D.F., Garrard, G.E., Bekessy, S.A., Fuller, R. A., Mumaw, L., & Rayner, L. (2016). Cities are hotspots for threatened species. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25 (1): 117–126.

Jim, C.Y. (1987). The status and prospects of urban trees in Hong Kong. Landscape and Urban Planning, (14): 1–20.

Khan, M.M., Akram, M.T., Janke, R., Qadri, R.W.K., Al-Sadi, A.M., & Farooque, A.A. (2020). Urban horticulture for food secure cities through and beyond COVID-19. Sustainability, 12 (22): 9592.

Khanal, K., Asheshwar, R., & Mathema, B. (2021). Assessment of species diversity and its management challenges in avenue plantation (study of Shankhamul and Balkumari road). Journal of Historical Archaeology and Anthropological Aciences, 6 (2).

Kidane, L. & Kejela, A. (2021). Food security and environment conservation through sustainable use of wild and semi-wild edible plants: A case study in Berek Natural Forest, Oromia special zone, Ethiopia. Agriculture & Food Security, 10 (1): 29.

Konijnendijk, C.C. (2018). The Forest and the City: The Cultural Landscape of Urban Woodland (Vol. 9). Springer International Publishing.

Kunwar, S. & Bist, P. (2021). Socioeconomic characters and status of cut-flower producers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Social Values & Society (SVS), 3 (2): 58–60.

Kwartnik-Pruc, A. & Droj, G. (2023). The Role of Allotments and Community Gardens and the Challenges Facing Their Development in Urban Environments—A Literature Review. Land, 12 (2): 325.

Lamichhane, D. & Thapa, H.B. (2012). Participatory urban forestry in Nepal: gaps and ways forward. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 11 (2): 105–111.

Lyytimaki, J., Fini, A., van den Bosch, C., & Francesco, F. (2017). Routledge Handbook of Urban Forestry.

Pandey, H.P. & Luitel, D.R. (2020). Diversity and Species Selection in Urban Forestry: Reflection from Maitighar to Tinkune Road of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Journal of Environment Sciences, 19.

Pun Magar, A. & Baniyar, N. (2021). Status and Prospects of Floriculture in Pokhara Valley of Nepal.

Salbitano, F., Borelli, S., Conigliaro, M., & Chen, Y. (2016). Guidelines on urban and peri-urban forestry. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

UNDESA. (2014). World urbanization prospects, the 2014 revision: Highlights. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York.

Virtudes, A. (2016). Benefits of Greenery in Contemporary City. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, (44): 032020.

Warn, E. & Adamo, S.B. (2015). The impact of climate change: migration and cities in South America. WMO Bulletin, 63 (2): 1014.

Xue, C.Q. (2016). Rail village and mega-structure. Hong Kong Architecture 1945-2015: from colonial to global, pp. 139–168.




How to Cite

Acharya, M., Subedi, B., & Subedi, S. (2023). Assessment of urban forest species preference and nursery use practice in Pokhara Metropolitan City. Banko Janakari, 33(1), 37–45.