Assessment of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) Using SatelliteDerived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Three Metropolitan Cities of Nepal

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3126/banko.v32i2.50895

Keywords:

Land surface temperature, metropolitan cities, MODIS NDVI, Nepal, Urban Heat Islands

Abstract

Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) are urban areas that are relatively warmer than nearby rural areas due to the presence of infrastructures, such as buildings, roads, and associated development. This study explored the UHIs in Nepal's three largest metropolitan cities, i.e., Pokhara, Bharatpur, and Nepalgunj. Using freely available data, we explored LST dynamics between 2000 and 2019 and how changes in NDVI affect LST and their relationship with UHI. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day product (MOD11A2) to evaluate LST and the MODIS-derived NDVI 16-day product (MOD13Q1) to quantify land surface characteristics. Using a simple linear regression technique, we explored the relationship between LST and NDVI. The results indicated that LSTs for the urban areas are consistently greater than LSTs for the nearby rural areas, and an inverse relation between LST and NDVI was obtained. The results from Pokhara and Bharatpur showed that increasing LST resulting from declining NDVI is responsible for UHIs. However, the results from Nepalgunj suggested that factors other than NDVI are responsible for variation in LST. These results indicate a need for systematic mapping, planning, and managing open and green areas in large cities. This research also highlights the scope of applying UHI conceptual models to rapidly developing urban areas in different locations of Nepal for better planning and management of open spaces.

 

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Published

2022-12-31

How to Cite

Kandel, S., Gyawali, B., Sandifer, J., Shrestha, S., & Upadhaya, S. (2022). Assessment of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) Using SatelliteDerived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Three Metropolitan Cities of Nepal. Banko Janakari, 32(2), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.3126/banko.v32i2.50895

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Articles