Agronomy Journal of Nepal <p>Published by the Agronomy Society of Nepal(ASoN). Full text articles available.</p> en-US <p>ASON permits for free use, distribution and reproduction in any medium if the original work is properly cited and not used for commercial purposes.</p> (Tika Bahadur Karki, Ph D) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 30 Sep 2022 08:48:41 +0000 OJS 60 Diversified and Long-term Cropping Systems Alters the System Sustainability and Energy Use Efficiency in Soils of Indo-Gangetic Plains <p>The cereal-based intensive cropping practices have posed the yield at a plateau and reduced the energy use efficiency (EUE) of the cropping systems in the Indo-genetic plains (IGPs). The long-term cropping systems experimentations with 4 diversified legumes and cereal cropping systems and a grassland fallow system were studied for &gt;10 years representing different agro-ecological regions at the agricultural research farm, IAS, BHU-Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh of IGPs to assess their impacts on system productivity and energy use efficiency. Out of 4 cropping systems <em>viz</em>, Pigeon pea-Pigeon pea (PP-PP) and Rice-Maize (R-M) systems were managed as conventional cultivation running under the breeding project, however; Dryland Rice-Lentil (R-L) and Zero-till Rice-Wheat (R-W) systems were running under agronomy project. The grassland fallow system was maintained in the agronomy block. The maximum system productivity was seen in the zero till rice-wheat (8185 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) system and the lowestpigeon peanpea- pigeonpea system (1615 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). However, the maximum EUE was found in pigeonpea system (13.23 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest in the zero till rice-wheat system (8.88 MJ ha<sup>-1</sup>). The study suggests that the inclusion of legumes in the cropping system is vital in enhancing the system productivity and energy use efficiency than the long-term cereal-based system in long-run to the alluvial soils of IGPs.</p> Laxmi Bhandari, Ram Swaroop Meena, Birendra Prajapati, Lal Prasad Amgain Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Multi-year Prediction of Wheat Yield under the Changing Climatic Scenarios in Central-west Terai using DSSAT Crop Model <p>The central-west Terai region is one of the major production domains of wheat in Nepal; however, its yield over the past three decades has been greatly affected by climate anomalies such as fluctuating temperatures, decreased solar radiation and rainfall. NASA-POWER derived weather data of Taulihawa in Kapilbastu (27.55° N, 83.667° E) district in central Terai for the past 32–33 years (1984/85 - 2017/18) were purposively selected and downloaded and validated with recorded weather data (1985/86, 1995/96, 2005/06 and 2015/16) of Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM). The trend analysis for grain yield of wheat yield in Kapilvastu was drawn with the historical data of maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall. Positive correlations between grain yields and minimum temperature and rainfall each showed an acceptable coefficient of determinations (R<sup>2</sup>). The Cropping system Model - Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CSM-CERES)- Wheat model, embedded in Decision Support Systems for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) ver 4.7 was used for multi-year predictions of wheat yields using both historically recorded and simulated climatic scenarios. Model simulated results closely agreed with the observed wheat yields recorded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD) in Nepal. The correlation coefficient of minimum temperature and wheat yield was 0.272 (p&lt;0.05). The correlation between precipitation and observed and DSSAT simulated wheat yield were 0.379 (p&lt;0.01). The multi-year predicted wheat yields using the historical weather data and by the use of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) scenario embedded in DSSAT crop model showed that yield of wheat could be sustained with use of the current crop cultivars only for 2050 scenarios. Agro-climatic index, mainly temperature, was found to be more sensitive to wheat production in the Nepalese central-west Terai region. This study suggests for the development of new temperature and drought tolerant ready wheat cultivars to feed the increasingly growing Nepalese population.</p> Lal Prasad Amgain, Devid Dhakal, Laxmi Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Crop Establishment Methods, Varieties and Levels of Zinc on Growth and Yield of Rice in Chitwan, Nepal <p>With the aim of identifying the appropriate doses of Zinc in rice for different varieties under various establishment methods, an experiment was carried out in a strip-split plot design with three replications at Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan during 2015-16. The treatment consists of two crop establishment methods (Transplanted rice (TPR) and Direct Seeded Rice (DSR)) in the vertical strip and two varieties (Hybrid Gorakhnath-509 and Sabitri) in the horizontal strip and four levels of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in sub-sub plot. The observations were recorded on growth, yield attributes, grain yield and economics. The research results revealed that the application of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 15 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> significantly increased the grain yield of DSR as compared to the non-application of ZnSO<sub>4</sub>. The higher grain yield of rice was because of increased yield attributes like effective tillers, thousand-grain weight and the number of filled grains per panicle. Crop establishment methods and varieties did not have a significant influence on the grain yield of rice. DSR had a lower cost of cultivation, higher net return and higher benefit-cost ratio as compared to TPR. The variety Sabitri had lower cost of cultivation, higher net return and higher benefit-cost ratio as compared to Gorakhnath-509. Similarly, the application of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ of 15 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest net return and the highest benefit-cost ratio. Therefore, ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> could be an option for increased yield and net return for DSR in Chitwan.</p> Rajan Pariyar, Shrawan K. Shah, Santosh Marahatta, Tika B. Karki Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Storage Materials and Duration on Quality of Rice Seed <p>Storage loss of rice seed in terms of quality parameters is higher in Nepal due to lack of information about the effect of storage materials. Laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of storage materials and storage period on quality parameters of rice seed (<em>Oryza sativa </em>L. cv., Bahuguni dhan-1). Rice seed was stored in seven storage materials (metal bin, plastic bin, super grain bag, PICS bag, plastic bag with jute sack, jute sack and earthen pot) in Completely Randomized Design with three replications at the Seed Laboratory of National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal from March to July, 2021. Seed moisture content and germination percentage were recorded before storage and after one, three and five months of storage. The population of two insect pests rice weevil and maize weevil was recorded after five months of storage. The result revealed that all the seed quality parameters under study were significantly influenced by storage materials. PICS bag followed by super grain bag was found to be superior in terms of seed moisture content, germination percentage and seed health throughout the storage period. Seed in the indigenous storage materials (earthen pot and jute sack) lost their quality significantly throughout the storage period. Future research strategies should focus on seed quality study under several indigenous storage materials found in Rupandehi district of Nepal.</p> Mamata Bista, Prakash Ghimire, Dipak Khanal, Narayan Khatri, Sima Marasini Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reasonable Fertilization Improves the Conservation Tillage Benefit for the Yield of Winter Maize in Rice-based Cropping System of Central Inner Terai of Nepal <p>To investigate the effects of fertilization, tillage, and their interaction on maize yield, an experiment on rice-maize was conducted on 2018/19 and 2019/20 at Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment was in a split-plot with two establishment methods viz. (i) zero tillage followed after (fa) conventionally tilled dry direct seeded rice (ZT fa CT-DDSR) (ii) conventional tillage fa puddled transplanted rice (CT fa Pu-TPR) and four nutrient management practices, i.e. (i) recommended dose (100% RDF; 180-90-60 N-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), (ii) Residue retention of rice crop @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 75% RDF (RR +75% RDF), (iii) Nutrient expert (NE) dose (150-50-90 N-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), (iv) Rice residue @ 3.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> +75% RDF followed after brown/green manuring of Sesbania in rice (R+75% RDF fa BM/GM) and the treatments were replicated thrice. The data on yield and yield attributes were recorded and analyzed by R studio. Both crop establishment methods and nutrient management practices did not influence (p&gt;0.05) the plant population, number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, thousand-grain weight, and sterility. The barrenness percentage was not significantly affected by the crop establishment methods but significantly (p&gt;0.05) lower under residue retained treatments. Application of NE dose, sterility was significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced under ZT fa CT-DDSR. The average grain yield, straw yield, and harvest index (HI) were 6153 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 4547 kg ha<sup>-1,</sup> and 53.81% respectively. The two years average grain yield was statistically at par (p&gt;0.05) for both crop establishment methods whereas application of NE dose, RR+75% RDF, and R+75% RDF fa BM/GM resulted in significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher grain yield than obtained in the 100% RDF applied plots.&nbsp; Maize planting on zero tillage followed after CT-DDSR was equally productive and the use of a nutrient expert for nutrient recommendation or retention of residues with a 25% reduction of the RDF had a yield advantage over the present&nbsp; RDF.</p> Santosh Marahatta, Tika Bahadur Karki Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Plant Population to Grain Yield of Winter Hybrid Maize in Chitwan Valley <p>A field experiment on “Performance of hybrid maize under different levels of nitrogen and plant population” was conducted in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at the research farm of the National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan during the winter season of 2015/16 to determine the optimum level of nitrogen and plant population for winter season hybrid maize. The grain yield (2.38 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) obtained in control without nitrogen was significantly lower in comparison to its all other levels (70, 140 and 210 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). Moreover, grain yield (5.45 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) produced by the application 210 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> was significantly superior over 70 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> (3.83 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) but remained at par with 140 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> (5.02 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) which also differed significantly. Moreover, the grain yield (4.98 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) recorded with the population of 101010 plants ha<sup>-1</sup> was significantly superior over 55,555 (3.34 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 69,444 (3.90 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) plants ha<sup>-1</sup> but similar to that of 85,470 plants ha<sup>-1 </sup>(4.46 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was also significantly higher as compared to 69,444 and 55,555 plants ha<sup>-1</sup> which were at par with each other. Regression analysis for the effect of nitrogen and plant population on grain yield showed the grain yield was 145 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and plant population was 87445 plants ha<sup>-1</sup>. Thus, hybrid maize (RML95/RML96) can be successfully grown by applying 145 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and maintaining a population of 87 thousand plants ha<sup>-1</sup> to achieve a higher grain yield during the winter season.</p> Goma Dhital, Santosh Marahatta, Tika Bahadhur Karki, Komal Bahadhur Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Participatory Evaluation of Herbicides in Wheat in Western Terai, Nepal <p>The yield losses due to weeds vary depending on the weed species, their density and environmental factors. For controlling weeds in wheat, the farmers rely on herbicides due to cost and time effectiveness. Keeping these facts in view a field experiment was conducted to identify appropriate herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat. The experiment was carried out at three locations of Kapilvastu, Rupandehi and Nawalparasi during 2016/17 and 2017/18. Pendimethalin 30 EC, Sulfosulfuron 30 g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> and control treatments were evaluated in the field of six farmers in an area of 330 m<sup>2</sup> for each treatment and were replicated six times. Wheat variety Tilottama was planted in the experiment. The fertilizer was applied at the rate of 100:50:50 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Weed populations were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing in an area of 0.25 m<sup>-2</sup> at three spots of each treatment and growth, yield attributes and yield data of wheat were collected and data were analyzed using Genstat statistical package. In 2016/17 Pendimethalin 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> and Sulsosulfuron @ 25 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> and control (no herbicide spray) treatments were significantly difference for plant height, spike m<sup>-2</sup> and grain yield but not significant for spike length and 1000 grains weight at Bimiha, Bhagdari and Nadawa sites. Both herbicides were found effective in controlling weed population. Whereas in 2017/18 Pendimethalin 30 EC. 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as pre-emergence and sulfosulfuron 30 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as post emergence herbicides were found effective to suppress weed population. Plant height, spike length and 1000 grains weight variables were not significant but spikes m-<sup>2</sup> and grains yield were significant Based on the pooled results it could be concluded that Pendimethalin 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> and Sulsosulfuron @ 25 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> herbicides were found effective in controlling weed population and increased yield attributes and yield in wheat crop over weedy check.</p> Mathura Yadav, Bisheswor Prasad Pandey, Narayan Khatri, Vishnu Prasad Chaurasiya Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Increasing the Productivity of Lentil through Agronomic Interventions in Nepal <p>The low productivity of lentil due to adaptation of poor crop management practices is the main problem of the lentil production in western terai region of Nepal. With an objective of selecting appropriate variety, sowing time, sowing method, seeding rate, priming techniques and weed management practice for lentil cultivation four different experiments were conducted at Grain Legumes Research Program, Khajura, Banke in two winter seasons of 2017/18 and 2018/19. The experiment on sowing time was conducted in split-plot design including four lentil varieties and four sowing dates, while the seeding rate experiment was laid out in split-split-plot design with the treatments of two varieties, two sowing methods and four seed rates. Similarly, seed priming and weed management trails were conducted in RCBD with ten treatments. All the experiments were replicated three times. The highest seed yield of lentil was recorded from the early maturing lentil varieties, i.e. PL 4 (934 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and ILL 7979 (864 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>). Similarly, lentil sowing on October (940 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) produced the higher seed yield than sowing on November (682 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>). Likewise, the highest seed yield of lentil was recorded from the use of seeding rate 60 kg ha<sup>–1</sup> (890 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>), but it was statistically at par with the seeding rates of 40 kg ha<sup>–1</sup> (865 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and 50 kg ha<sup>–1 </sup>(855 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>). Differently, the seed yield of lentil didn’t differ significantly under line (856 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and broadcasting (847 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) methods of sowing. The seed priming with a 250 ppm solution of sodium molybdate (Na<sub>2</sub>MoO<sub>4</sub>) produced significantly the highest seed yield (961 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) in lentil. Similarly, the highest and statistically similar seed yield of lentil was recorded with the weed management practice of two hand weeding (924 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and the use of Pendimethalin (898 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and Pendimethalin-Quizolofop-ethyl (857 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) as a pre-emergence. Thus, the adaptation of appropriate variety, planting time, seeding rate, seed priming technique, sowing method and weed management practices are the major factors of production for getting higher yield of lentil.</p> Anil Pokhrel, Tika Bahadur Karki, Sangharsh Raj Dangi Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Rice Establishment Methods on Different Dates on Yield and Yield Attributing Characteristics of Rice in Mid-hills of Nepal <p>An experiment was conducted in the summer season of 2019 and 2020 at the National Agronomy Research Centre to find out the response of various establishment methods and dates on the performance of rice. The experiment was carried out in 2 Factorial Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with 3 replications in an area of 12 m<sup>2</sup> and planting geometry of 25 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants. The establishment methods were Sprouted Direct Seeded Rice (SDSR) broadcasting, puddled transplanting, and unpuddled transplanting at three dates viz. 10<sup>th</sup> June, 26<sup>th</sup> June, and 10<sup>th</sup> July. Twenty four hours water-soaked seeds were allowed to sprouting for 48 hours and broadcasted in a puddled plot. 22 days old seedlings were transplanted in a puddled and unpuddled plots. Recommended doses of fertilizer @ 100:30:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup> was used in the experiment. SDSR produced the highest yield of 4.2 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup> compared to puddled transplanting method with 3.4 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>. The highest grain yield was recorded on 10<sup>th</sup> June (5.9 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by 26<sup>th</sup> June (4.0 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>). Sprouted direct seeded rice permitted to mature early and produced the higher grain yield.</p> <p> </p> Bhimsen Chaulagain, Tika Bahadur Karki, Reshama Neupane, Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai, Pankaj Gyawaly, Sangita Kaduwal, Soni Kumari Das Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Regenerative Agriculture and its Prospects in Nepal: A Review <p>Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on soil. Soil’s carrying capacity is being decreased these days due to erosion, depletion of soil nutrients and climate change. Regenerative agriculture is a way of farming both plants and animals that enriches and restores topsoil, and in turn, improves the water cycle. Nepal is also facing the ill effects of the conventional agriculture system. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this review article to highlight some of the alternative production systems suitable for Nepal. The findings of this review paper were about regenerative agriculture technology reduced the cost of production through minimum tillage, less use of agriculture inputs, less labor, consumption of less irrigation, maintaining soil moisture, water holding capacity and nutrient value through crop residue, crop rotation, soil cover, reduced soil erosion and run off top layer soil and increases the soil fertility through soil carbon sequestration that mitigates the climate change effects. The major constraints of regenerative agriculture are the lack of appropriate information and technologies in hand. For policymakers, farmers and food processing and marketing companies, regenerative agriculture has been an alternative production system with lower impacts on the environment. Therefore, to promote the identified and developed regenerative agricultural practices, participatory research in the farmer’s field with large-scale demonstration across the egro-ecological domains of the country.</p> Soni Kumari Das, Tika Bahadur Karki, Pankaj Gyawaly, Reshama Neupane, Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai, Sangita Kaduwal, Bhimsen Chaulagain Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bridging the Yield Gaps of Major Cereals through Agronomic Interventions in Nepal <p>Agricultural production is due to the exploitation of soil, water and energy. The objective of this review work was to identify the yield gap of major crops viz. rice, maize, wheat, and finger millet and their causes. An attempt has been made to suggest the potential agronomical interventions that reduce the yield gaps. Rice, wheat, and finger millet yields in all agro-ecological zones are declining, although yield trends of maize were reported to have increased in the Terai due to the increased use of hybrids. The yield gap can be minimized with assured irrigation and appropriate agronomic practices such as the use of the quality seed, timely planting with appropriate establishment methods, timely intercultural operations, soil fertility, moisture, weeds, diseases, insect pests and post-harvest management along with growing high-yielding and stable genotypes resilient to climate change. It is obvious that there must be a strong interaction between plant breeding and agronomy for enhanced crop production. Therefore, some of the potential agronomical technologies that contribute to increase the crop yields thereby reduce the yield gaps have been discussed in this article.</p> Tika Bahadur Karki, Reshama Neupane, Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai, Bhimsen Chaulagain, Sangita Kaduwal, Pankaj Gyawaly, Soni Kumari Das, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Conservation Agriculture in Maize-based Cropping System of Nepal: A Review <p>Maize-based cropping system followed by intensive tillage and faulty practices often associated with many negative implications such as the decline of soil organic matter, increase soil erosion by wind/water, lower nutrient-use efficiency, field burning of crop residue, air pollution mainly attributed to the monoculture of intensive conventional production systems leading to global warming and decline in factor productivity. Conservation Agriculture (CA) underlying principles of minimal soil disturbance, soil cover and crop rotation are increasingly recognized as an essential for the sustainability of this cropping system. Therefore, a brief review was done to find out the results its constraints and the possible interventions under a maize-based system of Nepal. Very few works under CA is done so far under maize-based cropping system of Nepal, however, the results are encouraging. There are some constraints in CA technologies promotion, such as scale-neutral agri-machineries, crop residues competition between CA use and livestock feeding, skilled and scientific manpower availability and overcoming the bias or mindset about tillage. CA provide opportunities to reduce the cost of production, improve resource use efficiency, saves water and nutrients and increase yield. There is a need to develop and promote low-cost technologies of CA that can be used effectively in maize based system of hills and Terai.</p> Sangita Kaduwal, Tika Bahadhur Karki, Reshama Neupane, Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai, Bhimsen Chaulagain, Prakash Ghimire, Pankaj Gyawaly, Soni Kumari Das Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Systems Productivity, Profitability and Soil Properties are Altered by Tillage Methods and Cropping Systems in the Mid-hills of Nepal <p>With the aim of identifying appropriate crop establishment methods in cereals-cereals, cereals-legumes, legumes-cereals and legumes-legumes cropping patterns, an experiment was carried out during 2019/20 to 2020/21 in National Agronomy Research Centre, Khumaltar. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with 8 treatments and 3 replications. Main plot was for two tillage methods [Zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT)] and sub-plots for 4 different cropping patterns (maize-wheat, maize-lentil, soybean-wheat and soybean-lentil). In zero tillage, the soil was disturbed only along the rows for making seeding furrows and the previous crop residues were left anchored. The rest of the crop management practices were adopted as per the recommended practices. The data were analyzed using GenStat software. The results revealed that tillage treatments did not influence the winter crop yields in 2019, but in 2020, ZT recorded a significantly higher yield of wheat (4.9 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared to CT (3.4 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>). Similarly, irrespective of crop establishment methods, pooled system yields and benefit: cost ratios were significantly influenced by various cropping patterns. The significantly higher system yield was recorded with maize-wheat (9.0 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the least with the soybean-lentil (5.2 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) cropping systems. Improvements in the soil properties were observed as SOM was 14% higher in ZT compared to CT. Similarly, average soil moisture and soil temperature in ZT and CT were found to be 30.2%, 27.5 °C and 28.7%, 29.4 °C, respectively. It is suggested that CA could possibly be an alternative production system for the fragile agro-ecology in the mid-hills of Nepal.</p> Pankaj Gyawaly, Renuka Shrestha, Tika Bahadur Karki, Reshama Neupane, Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai, Bhimsen Chaulagain, Sangita Kaduwal, Soni Kumari Das Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated Weed Management in Summer Maize in Mid-Hills of Nepal <p>Weed is one of the major problems in maize production. To develop an appropriate weed management practice, a field experiment was carried out during 2017 and 2018 at Khumaltar. Twelve different treatments, Pendimethalin as pre @ 1.0 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, Atrazine as pre @ 1 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, Metribuzine as pre @ 0.5 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, Tembotrione as post @ 0.2 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, Pendimethalin followed by (fb) 1 HW, Atrazine fb 1 HW, Metribuzine fb 1 HW, Tembotrione fb 1 HW, Atrazine + Metribuzine (early post ) as tank mixed, Straw mulch, Weed free (2 HW) and Weedy check (control) were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The experimental plot size was 12 m<sup>2</sup> and maize variety Manakamana -4 was sown on 21 and 26 May in 2017 and 2018 respectively. The seed rate used was 20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> with row spacing of 60 cm and plant to plant 20 cm. Fertilizers dose of 120:60:40 kg N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup> was applied. Data on crop growth, weed and yields were recorded and analyzed. Weed count and biomass were recorded from a meter square quadrat and yield data taken from net plot of 5.4 m<sup>2</sup>. Results showed that plant height with straw mulch was maximum of 294 cm. Weed density was significantly influenced by different weed management treatments. Metribuzine post fb 1 HW recorded the less weeds (52.8) and highest (258.5) in weedy check. The lowest weed dry biomass was recorded in Metribuzine post fb 1 HW (9.3 g m<sup>-2</sup>). The highest grain yield (7.6 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) was found in Metribuzine @ 0.5 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> as post emergence. The increased in grain yield due to the application of Metribuzine @ 0.5 kg a.i ha<sup>-1 </sup>as post emergence was 32.5% over the weedy check. Similarly, the highest weed control efficiency (77.1%) and the highest BC ratio (2.46) was also recorded in Metribuzine @ 0.5 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> as post emergence. </p> Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai, Bhimsen Chaulagain, Pankaj Gaywaly, Tika Bahadur Karki, Reshama Neupane, Soni Kumari Das, Sangita Kaduwal Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Various Weed Management Practices on Weed Dynamics and Crop Yields under Maize-Wheat Cropping System of Western Hills <p>Weeds pose a great challenge to cereal farmers and need to be managed before reaching the critical stage. An experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of various weed management practices on the weed dynamics and crop yields under the maize-wheat cropping system in 2019-2020 at research field of Directorate of Agricultural Research, Lumle, Kaski. The experiments consisted of six pre- emergence and post-emergence chemical management practices (Tembotrione post-emergence (PoE), Pendimethalin as pre-emergence (PE), Atrazine as (PoE), Atrazine as PE fb Tembotrione as PoE, Pendimethalin as PE fb 2,4-D Ethyl Ester (EE), Pendimethalin as PE fb Tembotrione as PoE for maize crop; Pendimethalin as PE, Pendimethalin as PE fb Manual weeding, Pendimethalin as PE fb Metribuzin, Pendimethalin as PE fb 2,4-D sodium salt as PoE, 2,4 D sodium salt as PoE, Metribuzin as PoE for wheat crop) compared with manual weeding and weedy check both maize and wheat. These treatments were studied in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Ageratum conyzoides and Chenopodium album were found to be the major weeds for the maize and wheat crop respectively. Atrazine as pre-emergence fb Tembotrione as post–emergence produced the highest yield (3.575 Mt ha-1) for maize season whereas 4.8 Mt ha-1 was obtained in Metribuzin treated plot as post emergence herbicide in wheat growing season. The yield increments by Tembotrione as post emergence was 71.51% and Metribuzin was 63.09% over weedy check. The findings could be useful for researchers and maize-wheat growing farmers of high rainfall ecologies.</p> Ramesh Acharya, Tika Bahadur Karki, Bhawana Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Sowing Dates on Wheat Varieties in Central Terai Region of Nepal <p>A suitable time of sowing and varieties are the most important factors for getting higher yield of wheat. To evaluate the effect of different sowing times on wheat varieties, an experiment was conducted at Directorate of Agricultural Research (DoAR), Madhesh Province, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal during the winter seasons of 2018-2019. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design with three replications that includes twelve treatments combination having three sowing dates as a main-factor ( 10<sup>th </sup>November, 25<sup>th</sup> November, and 10<sup>th</sup> December) and four promising wheat varieties (BL 4407, BL 4621, BL 4699, and Vijay) as a sub-factor. There was a significant effect of date of sowing on spike length, tillers, grain yield and 1000 grains weight, but the plant height and straw yield were not affected significantly by sowing dates. Variety had no significant effect on plant height and straw yield, but influenced significantly the spike length, effective tillers, 1000 grains weight and grain yield. The 25<sup>th</sup> November sown wheat crop gave a significantly higher grain yield (3925 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and straw yield (8044 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) but declined in grain yield noted by 11-14% in the 10<sup>th</sup> November and 10<sup>th</sup> December sown wheat. A promising wheat variety BL 4407 (4017 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) produced the highest yield, (20% more) compared with released variety Vijay (3203 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>). It can be concluded that proper time of sowing and selecting appropriate variety enhanced the grain yield of wheat.</p> Mitali Kumari Sah, Abhisek Shrestha, Pradeep Shah, Rajendra Prasad Yadav, Bisheshwar Prasad Yadav, Anand Mishra Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Weed Control Efficiencies, Grain Yield and Economics as Affected by Seedbed Preparation and Weed Management Practices in Central Terai, Nepal <p>Grain yield under dry direct seeded rice (DDSR) is primarily limited due to weeds. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at Rampur, Chitwan during the monsoon season, of 2014. The treatments consisted of two methods of seedbed preparation in the main plot and six weed management methods in the sub-plot arranged in split plot design with four replications. Results revealed that the grain yield of dry-direct seeded rice did not vary due to seedbed preparation methods. However, weedy check treatments reduced more than 92.78 % of grain yield of dry-direct seeded rice compared to weed-free check. The herbicidal treatments were found to be superior for the benefit-cost ratio. Pendimethalin fb Bispyribac sodium recorded the highest net returns of NRs 68.73 thousand ha<sup>-1</sup> and the benefit-cost ratio of 2.55. Sequential application of Pendimethalin followed by Bispyribac sodium was proved to be the most efficient weed management method for dry-direct seeded rice.</p> Tika Bahadur Karki, Pankaj Gyawaly, Shrawan Kumar Sah, Santosh Marahatta, Chetan Gyawaly Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Wheat-based Mixed-cropping Evaluation in the River-basin Areas of Far-western Nepal <p>A study was conducted to find-out the optimum seed rate for wheat-based mixed cropping patterns in the research field of the Directorate of Agricultural Research, Bhagetada Doti. The field experiment was conducted in the two consecutive winters of 2019-20 and 2020-21. The recommended seed rate of wheat (120 kg/ha) was considered a check, and the wheat seed rate was reduced by 20, 30, and 40%, respectively, for pea, lentil, and gram, to generate different mixed cropping combinations. The mixed crops were broadcasted together with wheat during wheat sowing time. Chemical fertilizer was applied at the rate of 80:40:30 kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup> at the time of seed sowing, and no additional fertilizers were supplied to the mixed crops. The results revealed that the combination of lentils (30%) and wheat (70%) were found to be the most profitable and recorded the maximum wheat equivalent yield followed by the combinations of toria (30%) + wheat (70%) and toria (20%) + wheat (80%) in our study.</p> Bhanu Bhakta Pokharel, Bishnu Prasad Joshi, Ram Bahadur Bhat, Dharmananda Joshi, Hari Joshi, Yamuna Joshi, Ramesh Bista, Rajesh Chaudhary, Rabin Giri Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nutrient Expert Tool for Fertilizer Management in Rice at Fulbari, Chitwan, Nepal <p>A field trial was conducted at Fulbari, Chitwan in 2017 to evaluate the growth, productivity and economics of rice production under different nutrient management practices. Trial was laid out in a split-plot design with five replications. The main plot factor consisted of two rice varieties (Radha-4; improved variety and Arize Tej Gold; a popular Hybrid) and subplot factor consisted of five different nutrient management practices farmers’ applied dose (FAD;0-20:0-15:0-18 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), government recommended dose (GRD; 100:30:30 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), NARC recommended dose (NRD; 120:60:40 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), LCC based N and NE® based P, K dose (LCC-N+NE-P,K; 90-115:5-22:17-50 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for Radha-4 and 90-140:5-36:38-73 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for Arize Tej Gold), Nutrient Expert® based NPK dose (NED; 93-109:5-22:17-50 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for Radha-4 and 118-125:5-36:38-73 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for Arize Tej Gold). Data regarding biometrical, phenological, and yield attributes were recorded at regular intervals. Results revealed that different nutrient management practices had a significant influence on growth, yield attributes, and yield of rice. Number of effective tillers per square meter (215.62), number of grains per panicle (132.52), panicle length (27.02 cm) was recorded higher in LCC-N+NE-P, K. Similarly, a number of grains per panicle and panicle length in LCC-N+NE-P, K were statistically similar to NED. Significantly higher grain yield (5.19 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (6.43 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in LCC-N+NE-P, K compared to FAD but statistically similar to NED. Higher Benefit-cost (B:C) ratio (2.41) was obtained in LCC-N + NE – P, K which was statistically similar to FAD and NED. Thus, the combined use of LCC and Nutrient Expert software for nutrient management in rice was found productive and profitable in western Chitwan.</p> <p> </p> Milan Acharya, Prabha Khanal, Santosh Marahatta, Shrawan Kumar Sah, Purushottam Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Integrated Use of Farmyard Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Soil Properties and Productivity of Rice in Chitwan <p>The effect of sole application of farm yard manure (FYM) and combined application of chemical fertilizers and FYM on soil properties and growth and yield traits of rice (Variety: Ramdhan) was studied on sandy loam soil at Rambagh, Chitwan, Nepal from June to November 2019. The seven treatments were studied in a randomized complete block design with four replications: T1: 100% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer (RDIF) (i.e., 100:60:40 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>); T2: 50% RDIF+ FYM @ 9.9 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>; T3: 50% RDIF+ FYM @ 31.3 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>; T4: 50% RDIF+ FYM @ 11.05 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>; T5: FYM @ 19.83 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>. The results indicated that combined application of chemical fertilizers and farmyard manure was found to have a significant effect on the number of effective tillers per m<sup>-2</sup> and grain yield of rice. There was no significant interaction between thousand grain weight and sterility percent. The highest grain yield of 3,453.69 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and the highest number of effective tillers per m<sup>-2</sup> (299) were found in the application of 50% RDIF+ FYM @ 31.3 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>. The application of the highest level of FYM alone improved the soil properties. The highest values of available soil organic carbon (34.67 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>), available soil nitrogen (1.24 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>), and available soil phosphorus (39.57 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) at a depth of 0–15 cm were found with the application of FYM @ 62.5 Mt ha<sup>-1</sup>. The findings of this study suggest that farmers can apply FYM @ 62.5 Mt ha<sup>-1 </sup>to improve soil properties and 50% RDIF + FYM @ 31.3 Mt ha<sup>-1 </sup>to have the higher grain yield of rice.</p> Sarita Lamichhane, Babu Ram Khanal, Ajay Jaishi, Sandesh Bhatta, Roshana Gautam, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000