Journal of Agriculture and Environment <p><span style="color: #0d0d0d; font-family: Söhne, ui-sans-serif, system-ui, -apple-system, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Noto Sans', sans-serif, 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, 'Apple Color Emoji', 'Segoe UI Emoji', 'Segoe UI Symbol', 'Noto Color Emoji'; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, published annually by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Government of Nepal, stands as a beacon of scholarly excellence, offering rigorous double-blind peer review and encompassing diverse topics such as Agriculture, Farming Systems, Environment, Climate Change, Food Safety, and Food and Nutrition Security</span></p> Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development en-US Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2091-0991 Adoption of Improved Management Practices of Sugarcane in Bara and Nawalparasi Districts <p>Agricultural technologies have an important role to improve productivity as well as the quality of the crops.However, the adoption of improved technology has remained poor for sugarcane in Nepal. A research was conducted in Bara and Nawalparasi (Bardhaghat Susta west (BSw)) district of Nepal with a sample for 120 sugarcane growing farmers in the year 2019 to assess adoption of improved management practices of sugarcane. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to of improved management practices among farmers. Respondents were grouped into two categories, high adopter and medium adopter based on adoption index of each farmer. The average Adoption Index (AI) value obtained was 0.685. Around fortywere high adopters. The use of credit, ownership of agri-machine, and participation. All variables had a positive relationship with the level of adoption of improved practices. The study revealed that farmers using credit, ownership of power-driven agri-machine, participation in crop related training increased the probability of farmer being high adopter. Agricultural machinery services, easy and cheap credit facilities and, easy access to extension services can help to increase in adoption of improved practices by sugarcane farmer.</p> Anuma Bhattarai Udit Prakash Sigdel Pankaj Raj Dhital Ram Krishna Shrestha Srijana Timilsina Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 1 9 10.3126/aej.v24i01.57865 Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency and Profitability of Wheat Production in Kailali District, Nepal <p>A study was done in 2021 in the Kailari rural minicipality, Gauriganga municipality, Godawari municipality, and Dhangadhi sub-metro politian city of the Kailali district to analyze the economics of wheat production. A total of 200 samples (50 from each village) were selected by using a simple random sampling technique. Most respondents (91 percent) had agriculture as a primary occupation. The area under wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>) cultivation per household was 0.6 hectare with no significant difference between super zone of the Prime Minister Agriculture Modernization Project and non-super zone areas. The average production per household was 1814.5 kg whereas the yield was 3.3 mt/ha. The average cost of production was NRs. 64,526.62 per hectare and the B:C ratio was found to be 1.492. The Cobb-Douglas function showed that fertilizer, pesticide, land preparation, irrigation, and threshing costs were significant contributing factors to wheat production. The return to scale was found to be 0.261. An Index of severity was constructed to study the problems of wheat production in the study area. Weed infestation, lack of fertilizers, and insect pests were found to be three major problems.</p> Rajendra Bam Ganesh Mahara Kapil Khanal Rishiram Kattel Suman Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 21 10.3126/aej.v24i01.57885 Analysis of Supply Chain and Fish Marketing in Nawalparasi (East), Nepal <p>Study was conducted during October 2021 to November 2021, to investigate the supply chain, present market situation, marketing constrains, marketing margins, and the consumer’s behavior and purchasing pattern towards the fish in Nawalparasi (East) district of Nepal. Fish producers, traders and consumers were surveyed through semi-structure questionnaire. Five fish Producers, eight wholesalers, twelve retailers and twenty consumers were randomly surveyed. Among 20 traders majority of the traders belonging to the Madhesi and Tharu community. Finding of the study revealed that fish trading almost dominated by male (84%). All the respondents involved in fish trading more than 30 years old. there was no specific marketing channel used by the farmers, 55.65% of total fish produce is sold to the wholesalers, 32.49% to the retailers and 11.86% is sold to the customers directly by the fish farmers. The marketing margin of Nepalese live fish Rohu and Common Carp was higher than other species of fish in the Nawalparasi (East). Nepali fish Rohu and common carp fetch highest price Rs 425/kg and Pangasius fetch lowest price Rs. 280/kg. Nepalese fish were mostly packed in plastic crates and transported by pick up van. Indian average fish sizes were 2.91 kg and Nepali average fish sizes were 1.91 kg. Among the major carp species; the most preferred one by the consumers was Rohu followed by Bhakur.</p> Mina Mahatara Punam G.C. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 23 28 10.3126/aej.v24i01.57889 Appraisal of Farm Mechanization and Farmer’s Field Practice of Maize Farming at Lamahi Municipality, Dang, Nepal <p>The study compares farm mechanization and farmer’s field practice to document the agronomic and economic feasibility of mechanized maize farming. The research was carried out in randomized complete block design with 2 treatments of mechanized practice and farmers practice and 3 replications as location for the winter maize using 10v10 hybrid variety. In agronomic aspect, seed rate and urea application in farmers practice (17.05 kg ha-1 and 186.41 kg ha-1 respectively) were found lower to mechanized practice (30.00 kg ha-1 and 348.00 kg ha-1 respectively). Consequently, lower yield was found in farmers practice (7.56 t ha-1) to mechanized practice (10.43 t ha-1) which was attributed by lower plant population, higher sterility, and smaller cob diameter in farmers’ practice. The benefit cost ratio was higher in mechanized practice (3.76) to farmer’s practice (2.44). Labour shortage can be mitigated by mechanization through the custom hiring center even in small holder maize growers.</p> Prabhat Jha Santosh Marahatta Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 29 37 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58071 Assessment of Late Sown Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under High Temperature Stress Conditions <p>In recent years, climate change has led to an increase in extreme weather conditions, including high-temperature stress. High temperature stress is the term for an increase in temperature (&gt; 30°C) following anthesis during grain development. Wheat is particularly vulnerable to high temperature stress, and its productivity is severely affected. With the objective of identifying wheat genotypes tolerant to heat stress in terms of grain yield, a total of fifty wheat genotypes were evaluated under heat stress conditions at Directorate of Agricultural Research, Lumbini Province, Khajura, Banke in 2021/22. There was highly significant difference (&lt;0.001) among genotypes for yield. The association between the grain yield (GY) and the biomass yield (BM), thousand grain weight (TGW), and spike number per meter square (SPMS), was highly significant and positive. The highest harvest index value of 0.59 and the highest grain yield were achieved from 20HTWYT#36 (4133 kg/ha), followed by Bandganga (3992 kg/ha), 20HTWYT#23 (3978 kg/ha), 20HTWYT#11 (3943 kg/ha), and 20HTWYT#05 (3758 kg/ha) exhibiting higher tolerance to high temperature stress and indicating the potential for this genotypes to be used as domain specific varieties suitable for heat stress conditions of Banke district and for<br>breeding climate resilient varieties in the future.</p> Suman Bohara Basistha Acharya Surakshya Bohora Jharana Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 39 49 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58076 Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources on Potato Yield and Soil Fertility <p>Potato is a vital food source for the high hills of Nepal. The crop requires the right amount of nutrient at the appropriate time for optimal growth and production. However, the low availability, high cost, and inappropriate timing of applying nitrogenous fertilizers like urea have made it challenging for farmers to use the correct amount in their fields. Therefore, affordable and renewable sources of plant nutrients should be used to supplement chemical fertilizers. In addition to this, using organic sources can improve soil properties. To determine the effects of nitrogen supplied through different sources, an experiment was conducted in a randomized block design. There were eight treatments, each with a different combination of nitrogen supplied through urea and various organic sources as N1(100% rec N via Urea), N2 (50 % rec N via FYM + 50 % rec N via Urea), N3 (50 % rec N via PM + 50 % rec N via Urea), N4(50 % rec N via GM + 50 % rec N via Urea) , N5 (75 % rec N via FYM + 25 % rec N via Urea), N6 (75 % rec N via PM + 25 % rec N via Urea), N7 (75 % rec N via GM + 25 % rec N via Urea), N8 (Farmer practices (FYM 10 t ha-1)). The yield of potato tubers was significantly higher when recommended nitrogen was applied 50% through organic manure like poultry, FYM, and goat, and 50% through urea than other treatments, including farmer practice of using 10 t ha-1 FYM. However, the yield was statistically at par with nitrogen via sole urea. Additionally, the application of organic manures led to an increase in soil properties such as organic manure content, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium content. In conclusion, application of recommended nitrogen as 50% via organic manures like poultry, FYM, and goat, and 50% N via urea can enhance potato yield while also positively affecting soil properties.</p> Suraj Singh Karkee Subas Bishwokarma Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 51 57 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58077 Economics of Potato Production in Mustang District of Nepal <p>Potato possesses a huge potential for production in Nepal and is a major source to ensure food and nutritional security among people of mountainous region. The study was carried out in four rural municipalities of Mustang district to assess the economics of potato production. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was administered randomly to 90 different farmers. The collected data was tabulated and analysed using STATA. Potato production was identified as a profitable farming business with an average productivity of 18.95 t/ha with benefit-cost ratio of 1.59. The average per hectare total cost of production of potato was found to be Rs 660774.8 on mustang district. The study reveals that expenditure on labour wage and organic manure contributed more than three-quarters of total production cost of potato. There were no any significant differences between the different rural municipalities in terms of the total cost of production but a significant difference (1% level of significance) was observed over the production of potato per hectare. An increment in 1% cost of seeds was found to result in increase in 0.27% of income from potato production, however a diminishing return to scale (0.232) was revealed in the study. Incidence of disease and pest and price fluctuation were identified as a major constraint for potato production and marketing respectively. Timely availability of inputs, mechanization to reduce labour cost, training on advanced technology, wide coverage of agriculture extension service, and adoption of climate smart farming technologies</p> Aashish Karki Nabin Bhusal Nabin Bhandari Bipin Bastakoti Kritim Shrestha Biraj Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 59 67 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58128 Economic Analysis of Coffee Subsector in Nepal <p>Coffee being one of the emerging crops with high potential to export to earn foreign currency, has been given due importance by the Government of Nepal. Among different agricultural goods produced in and exported from Nepal, the competitiveness of coffee has quickly increased in recent years, thus contributing to the improvement of rural livelihoods. This study was based on review of literature and analysis of secondary data/information. Statistical tools such as correlation analysis was also used to analyze data. According to the official records coffee production area has expanded from around 135.7 ha in fiscal year 1994/95 to 3052 ha in 2020/21 and the production has increased from 12.95 Mt. of dry cherry to 315 Mt. of green beans during the same period. Nepal’s coffee subsector is characterized by low productivity, low production and poor quality. Inter alia, it was mainly due to incidence of insect pests, production done by smallholder farmers in a widely scattered area creating problems in quality control and collection leading to higher cost. The good price, high demand and overwhelmingly organic system of production are the encouraging factors but the formidable challenge remains on fighting with white stem borer and providing incentives for small holder farmers throughout the relatively long gestation period of coffee crop. Apart from low production level, organic certification and quarantine requirements pose serious challenges to export. Coffee produced in Nepal is Organic &amp; Fair-trade and is readily accepted as a Specialty Coffee in specific international markets.</p> Indra Hari Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 69 77 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58129 Effect of Altitude on Adult Emergence, Pupal Mortality and Adult Sex Ratio of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera:Tephritidae) <p>Problems of Chinese Citrus Fly (CCF), <em>Bactrocera minax</em> (Enderlein) in citrus orchards have been increasing in Nepal. The reason behind the failure in CCF control is the lack of a clear and thorough understanding of the adult emergence period in different altitudes. Therefore, the pupae of CCF were collected from the soil below the infested sweet orange trees in Sunapati Rural Municipality, Ramechhap, Nepal and reared in containers of height 5 cm and diameter 6 cm (10 pupae per container) in randomized complete block design selecting different locations as treatments, viz. 1247 masl (Bethan), 1354 masl (Nagsiwa), 1443 masl (Aarukharka), 1561 masl (Sadi), 1650 masl (Dimipokhari) replicating four times. Early peak emergences of adult CCF (four weeks earlier in 4th week of April) occurred at lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes (in 4th week of May), where peak-emergence was recorded. Male: female ratio (range 1.05-1.37) did not differ significantly at different altitudes, while pupal mortality (25%) was found to be the highest in upper elevations. The study concludes that fly management strategy should be made according to the date of emergence at least two weeks earlier at lower elevations than in higher elevations.</p> Bipin Karki Resham Bahadur Thapa Debraj Adhikari Bhola Gautam Amrita Shedai Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 79 84 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58132 Effect of Transplanting Date and Spacing on Seed Production of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) at Chitwan, Nepal <p>A study was conducted at the Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan during the winter season, to find out the suitable transplanting dates and spacing for quality seed production of broccoli (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> var. <em>italica</em>) Cv. Calabrese. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications, where main plot treatment consisted of transplanting dates (November 1, November 15 and November 30) and sub plot treatment consisted of spacing (60 cm × 50 cm, 60 cm × 60 cm, 60 cm × 75 cm). Since transplanting time and spacing affect vegetative traits, which are very important for seed yield. The highest seed yield (1.09 mt./ha) was obtained with November 1st planting at the spacing of 60 cm × 50 cm. So that transplanting date of November 1st with spacing 60 cm × 50 cm is better for seed production of broccoli in plain areas of Chitwan, Nepal.</p> Saraswati Shrestha Arvind Shribastava Mohadatta Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 85 90 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58134 Efficacy of Chemicals and Hot Water Treatments on Quality and Shelf Life of Amrapali Variety of Mango <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of hot water and chemicals on the quality and shelf life of Amrapali variety of mango at Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Physiologically matured mango fruits (200±20 g) were treated with distilled water for 10 minutes, hot water @ 50°C for 10 minutes, hot water @ 55°C for 10 minutes, carbendazim solution @ 0.1% for 10 minutes and Sodium hypochlorite solution @ 100 ppm for 2 minutes. The untreated fruits were considered as control treatment. The highest total soluble solid (18.15°Brix), the lowest physiological loss in weight (24.20%) and the lowest spoilage loss (42.05%) were observed in fruits treated with hot water at 55°C. Therefore, the post-harvest treatment of mango fruits with hot water at 55°C for 10 minutes was found to be effective for maintaining the quality and shelf life of mango.</p> Shakar Shasi Pandey Nirajan Bhandari Madhav Dhital Arjun Kumar Shrestha Bishal Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 91 98 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58163 Efficacy of Some Plant Extracts against Root Rot Disease of Green Oak Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crispa) Caused by Pythium sp. Grown in a Hydroponic System <p>An antifungal activity of the twelve plant extracts were tested against Pythium sp., the causal agents of root rot diseases grown in hydroponic systems. The crude extracts of <em>Acorus calamus</em> and <em>Syzygium aromaticum</em> completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Pythium sp. in the in vitro condition at 5,000 ppm, whilst <em>Curcuma zedoaria</em> and other plant extracts had show lesser inhibitory activity. Out of these twelve plant extracts selecting <em>A. calamus</em>, <em>S. aromaticum</em> and <em>C. zedoaria</em> for further in vivo test in nursery raising seedling in plastic tray of hydroponic system by inoculating Pythium sp. mycelial developed on agar medium, <em>A. calamus</em> rhizome extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect against % root tip colonized by Pythium sp. of 5.85 to 48 followed by <em>S. aromaticum</em> floral bud 9.97 to 60 and rhizome of <em>C. zedoaria</em> extract 28.32 to 90 at 2000 ppm on seven and twenty one days after inoculation respectively. The concentrations and application methods of these extracts should be further investigated to control the root rot disease of lettuce<br />in the hydroponic system.</p> Lakshya Bahadur Chaudhary Pimjai Meetum Mana Kanjanamaneesathian Roshan Adhikari Rachsawan Mongkol Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 99 108 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58204 Evaluation of Different Growing Media for Tomato and Sweet Pepper Seedlings Raising in Pokhara, Nepal <p>Nine different compositions of growing media were evaluated for growing tomato and capsicum in two consecutive years (2020 and 2021). Experiments were conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) under rain shelter (poly house) with three replications. The growing media were Cocopeat, FYM+Cocopit+Perlite, FYM+ Cocopit+Vermiculite, FYM+Perlite, FYM+Soil, FYM+Vermiculite, Vermicompost+Perlite, Vermicompost +Soil and Vermicompost+Vermiculite. There were significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in the observed parameters like number of seedlings emergence, number of seedling establishment, number of leaves, seedling height and diameter of seedling stem among the tested growing media. The highest seedling emergence of tomato and sweet pepper were recorded in cocopeat as a growing media. After 30 days after seed sowing (DAS) in tomato, the highest number of seedling (103.5) were found in Cocopeat and the tallest seedling height (19.92 cm) was found in Vermicompost+ perlite. Similarly, in Capsicum (40DAS), the highest number of seedling (83.5) were found for the growing media Cocopeat only, followed by Vermicompost + Perlite (78) and the tallest seedling height (13.89 cm) was found in Vermicompost+Vermiculite grown seedlings. The good root plug formation was found for the use of cocopeat. Therefore, use of vermicompost or FYM in the mixed form with cocopeat or the soil as a growing media would be sustainable technology for commercial seedling production of vegetables.</p> Santosh Lohani Saroj Adhikari Lok Nath Aryal Yubraj Bhusal Manahar Kadariya Sunil Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 109 118 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58176 Evaluation of Different Weed Management Practices on the Yield of Spring Maize in Gauradaha, Jhapa <p>Maize is more likely to have weed infestations due to its steady early growth rate and extensive row spacing, which favor weed development even before crop emergence. As a result, there prevails strong correlation between weed density and maize yield. An experiment was conducted at the Gauradaha Agriculture Campus, Jhapa, in the spring of 2022 to assess the effect of various weed control methods on maize yield. The experiment had three replications and eight treatments (control, cover crops, hand weeding at intervals of 15 days, botanical weedicides, inorganic weedicides, black plastic mulch, straw mulch, and small inter-row spacing). The number of cobs per hectare, sterility%, and shelling% were not significantly affected by various treatments. The use of black plastic mulching for weed management achieved significantly higher numbers of grain/cob (427.83), row/cob (13.40), weight of grain/cob (153.33gm), test weight, and yield (8.46t/ha). Similarly, the lowest test weight was recorded in T8 (111), i.e., the small inter-row spacing plot. While the lowest yield was observed in T4, i.e., botanical weedicides (3.20). This study found that plastic mulching had a positive impact on the majority of yield and yield-attributing indicators in spring maize, which could be helpful in weed-control strategies.</p> Rumita Limbu Sanwa Karishma Khanal Shwastika Baral Goma Dhital Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 119 126 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58177 Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. against Wirestem Disease of Cauliflower Caused by Rhizoctonia solani <p>The biological effectiveness of twenty-eight native isolates of Trichoderma along with two known species (<em>Trichoderma viride</em> and <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em>) were tested against <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> using dual culture technique. Of them, seven isolates and the two species of Trichoderma were tested in pot culture under net-house conditions against wirestem disease of cauliflower caused by <em>R. solani</em>. Inhibitory effects on dual culture were statistically very significant for all tested Trichoderma. Thirteen Trichoderma isolates exhibited more than 90% bio-control index and twenty-three isolates had more or at par with <em>T. viride</em> and <em>T. harzianum</em>. In an in-vitro trial, isolate from Dhankuta (Pakhribas) was most effective against <em>R. solani</em> as evident by the highest bio-control index at 6 days after incubation. Similar to this, in an in-vivo experiment, tested isolates of Trichoderma contributed more or less in the plant canopy area, root length and shoot circumference attributes. Trichoderma isolates significantly contributed to root dry matter and biomass while there was a highly significant difference in reduction of disease severity. <em>T. harzianum</em> and the isolate from Dhankuta (Pakhribas) were most effective for the control of wirestem disease</p> Chandra Bahadur Budha Sundar Man Shrestha Hira Kaji Manandhar Suraj Baidya Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 127 136 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58179 Exploration of Sustainable Live Fish Business in Nepal <p>Live fish businesses are likely to become more popular in Nepal due to their reliable source of food. The live fish food survey data was collected from a Google Form questionnaire in the Nepalese language. This study investigates consumers, retailers, and wholesalers in Nepal's live fish market to identify significant concerns that could be addressed in the decision-making of live fish professionals. Nonparametric tests are used for non-normally distributed data, and parametric tests are used for normally distributed data. The study found high mortality and administrative obstacles of 68.60% and 48.60%, respectively. If the wrong choice of aeration method and equipment is made, more fish will survive in the retailer's shop and during transportation time. Fish Models II and III will be an alternative to the current method of transportation, which shows that increasing the tank capacity by one standard deviation increases fish survival by 0.7 and 0.65 standard deviations, respectively. To increase the dissolved gas, the survey suggests that transportation and aeration methods should be improved. This increases the volume of transportation while using the same resources, meeting market demands.</p> Hareram Devkota Dilip Kumar Jha Tista Prasai Joshi Shreemat Shrestha Mahendra Prasad Bhandari Nabaraj Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 137 148 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58180 Growth Performance of Live Fish Feed: Artemia salina in Different Supplemental Feeds in Aquarium Culture <p>Artemia is an excellent live feed for newly hatched fish and crustaceans gained a unique position in the aquaculture system. Brine shrimp is a non-selective filter feeder, so different locally available source feeds should be evaluated as potential food source for their control mass culturing. The experiment was carried out to study the effect of different supplement feeds on the growth performance of Artemia at Central Fisheries Promotion and Conservation Centre, Baalaju, Kathmandu from December 2021 to February 2022. The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design (CRD) with four treatments, each treatment consisting four replications. Four treatments consist different combination of supplement feed i.e., T1: (spirulina + rice bran), T2: (soyabean + rice bran), T3: (Mustard oilcake + rice bran), T4: (Yeast + rice bran). All supplement feed contains 25% CP and feed diet was supplied by 2% of body weight. In terms of growth and yield performance parameters, significant effect was recorded on average length, individual weight and total biomass. Also, significant effect was recorded on survivability and density. However, no significant effect was recorded on CP content of Artemia biomass. T1 recorded the maximum average length (8.7±0.21 mm), individual weight (0.0028±0.0001 gm), and biomass (1.79±0.069 gm/L) whereas lowest average length (7±0.08 mm), individual weight (0.0013±0.0002 gm) and biomass (0.61±0.005 gm) was recorded in T4. Also, T1 recorded the maximum density (633.8±3.62), and survivability (70.8±0.5) whereas lowest density(467.9±4.26) and survivability (58.0±1,71) found in T4. Hence it can be concluded that the combination of spirulina and rice bran was best supplement diet and can be applied in the cultivation of Artemia for best growth performance and biomass Production in aquarium condition.</p> Nabin Khadka Raksha Khadka Ram Bhajan Mandal Ashok Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 149 155 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58181 Job Satisfaction of Government Agriculture Officers Working in the Extension Service of Nepal <p>A study was conducted to assess the job satisfaction status of government agriculture officers working in the extension service of Nepal and to find out the significant satisfaction determining factors as perceived by them. Semi-structured questionnaire was applied via online Google forms and findings were drawn from 112 responses. 64.29% respondents perceived their overall job satisfaction to be neutral. Regarding the individual factors, they were found to be satisfied with four factors, namely; Physical facilities at the office, Guidance of/and relationship with supervisors/office chief, Cooperation of/and relationship with co-workers and welfare/retirement facility, but dissatisfied with capacity building and job promotion opportunity while neutral to pay factor. Regarding the most preferred attribute of job satisfaction, capacity building and job promotion opportunity ranked first. Guidance of/and relationship with supervisors/office chief and Pay factor ranked second and third respectively. 52.63% of the respondents working in central or policy level offices were found to be with less workload than they expect. 54.5% of respondents expressed having unfair practices in case of various opportunities within the organization. There should be enough and effective capacity enhancement opportunities and the concerned organization should foster a fair system to make them happy and productive manpower of the country.</p> Min Bahadur Pun Ram Hari Timilsina Narayan Raj Joshi Udit Prasad Sigdel Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 157 165 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58184 Molecular Identification of Coffea Arabica Varieties in Nepal: Insights from Phylogenetic Analysis <p>This study aimed to identify and characterize the coffee varieties cultivated in Nepal using molecular phylogenetic analysis. The molecular identification and genetic relationship of twenty five coffee varieties were collected from the Nepal Coffee Development Center, Gulmi, Nepal. DNA was isolated from leaf tissue, and Internal Transcribed Spacers Region (ITS)-specific PCR was performed, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic tree construction. BLASTN was performed to identify the similarities with the sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Database. Evolutionary divergence between the sequences was computed using Maximum Composite Likelihood Model. Sequences were analyzed using Maximum Likelihood Model and Tamura-Nei model to construct molecular phylogeny. BLASTN and molecular phylogeny confirm all the samples to be Coffea arabica. Evolutionary divergence in pairwise comparison was found to be 0% to 4.3%. Divergence of 4.3% was detected between CDC-S21 and CDC-S73. With this, we identified the coffee samples to be C. arabica and we also computed relatedness among our varieties.</p> Gyanu Raj Pandey Shreejan Pokharel Samsher Basnet Anish Basnet Ashmita Mainali Sadikshya Rijal Asmita Shrestha Bignya Chandra Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 167 178 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58187 Morphological Characterization of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Genotypes at Dailekh <p>Pomegranate is an emerging potential fruit crop of Nepal and it can be cultivated successfully from tropical to warm temperate climatic condition of terai to mid- hills. This research was conducted to study the morphological traits and identify the superior pomegranate genotypes at Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Dailekh in 2019. Three pomegranate genotypes (HRDPOM001, HRDPOM004 and HRDPOM004M) were studied for their growth, flowers and pomological characters. Variation in plants, flower and pomological characters was observed in pomegranate genotypes. The highest marketable fruit weight (1.4 kg/plant) produced in HRDPOM001, followed by HRDPOM004 (1.2 kg/plant). The highest aril weight (60.5%) was measured in HRDPOM004. Highest TSS (12.8°Brix) and good taste preferences were recorded in the fruits of HRDPOM004. Pomological attributes for HRDPOM004 was found better than other studied genotypes. Individual fruit weight, fruit length, and fruit diameter showed the significant positive association with total fruit weight, and selection of these traits could improve the fruit yield. Based on the major pomological attributes, HRDPOM004 was found promising and selected to cultivate at the similar agro-climatic regions of Nepal.</p> Binod Prasad Luitel Asmita Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 179 186 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58188 Neglected and Underutilized Crop Species of Nepal: Smart Foods for Uncertain Future <p>The majority of crop species that are cultivated for food in Nepal are not prioritized in formal research, education and development making them neglected and underutilized. A narrative review and expert interviews were carried out to investigate the significance of neglected and underutilized species in the realms of food and nutrition, climate change, economic activities, and culture. We listed 65 neglected and underutilized species as future smart food based on their potential value in food and nutrition. Neglected and underutilized species can play a crucial role by improving incomes and enhancing the food and nutrition security of smallholder farmers and rural communities. Furthermore, these crops have the capacity to adapt against extreme climatic conditions and be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses. There is an urgent need to broaden the food basket of the country by supporting the promotion and commercialization of neglected and marginalized crops through research and development.</p> Toyanath Joshi Ram Prasad Mainali Sabina Bhandari Prashiksha Acharya Krishna Hari Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 187 196 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58189 Nepalese Fine and Aromatic Rice Landraces: A Review <p>With the recent issue of Geographical Indication (GI) tag claim by India on Basmati rice, Nepalese rice sector got an urgent call to conserve and promote fine and aromatic rice landraces. Fine, medium, coarse landraces were further classified into aromatic and non-aromatic. Some of the aromatic landraces popularized by their local dialect names as Basmati anadi, Basmati anpjhutte, Choti basmati, etc. were cultivated in diverse environment by local farmers but utilization in national rice improvement program is insufficient. Just handful of landraces were used as parental lines to develop improved varieties viz. Jarneli in Khumal-2, Pokhreli masino in Khumal 4, Khumal -5 and Palung 2, pureline of Jethobudho as Pokhreli jethobudho, pureline of Lalkabasmati as Lalkabasmati. With the prevailing trend of fast-track registration of the exotic improved lines, our grassroots level efforts to study the genetic makeup and unique attributes of our landraces are overshadowed. However, Jarneli, Kalo marshi, Kalo nuniya, Mansara, etc. were found to be popular for traits nutritious, medicinal, abiotic stress tolerance and resilience to low fertility soil. Furthermore, the modern tools of molecular characterization are yet to be utilized prominently to identify such valuable genes and understand their phylogenetic diversity rewarding for future rice breeding program.</p> Kamana Rayamajhi Bishwas Malla Thakuri Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 197 204 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58190 Phytochemical Screening and Allelopathic Potential of Important Medicinal Plants Used by Dhimal Community in Urlabari Municipality <p>A study was conducted to document the major ethnobotanicals used against different ailments from Dhimal community of Urlabari Municipality. Deductive research approach employed through household survey using semi-structured questionnaire with 115 respondents for research work. Out of 23 documented plants, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., <em>Mimosa pudica</em> L. , <em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss, <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> L. and <em>Acorus calamus</em> L. were screened for further phytochemical analysis based on fidelity level. Five treatments maintained as 3 different concentrations (5, 10, and 15% of stock solution), and control were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications for evaluating allelopathic potential where selected botanical extracts on germination, radical, and plumule growth of wheat seedlings were examined under invitro condition. <em>Mimosa pudica</em> L. had the highest alkaloid (15.39%), <em>Cuscuta reflexa</em> Roxb. had the highest terpenoid (9.17%) and <em>Acorus calamus</em> L. had the highest saponin (5.49%) when calculated via gravimetric method. Germination, radical and plumule growth found under control treatment were 3.24ab±0.09, 2.94a ±0.09cm and 2.70a ±0.17cm respectively. The stock solution of <em>Acorus calamus</em> L. with 15% concentration extract resulted in the maximum reduction of radicle length (1.14e ±0.22cm) and plumule length (1.04h ±0.17cm), along with heavily controlled germination (1.05f ±0.17) of wheat seedlings. Thus, <em>Acorus calamus</em> L. proved the highest allelopathic potential on wheat seedling growth indicating further investigation on other crops.</p> Sonika Poudel Subodh Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 205 217 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58192 Satellite Remote Sensing of Rice Crops in Nepal : A Review <p>Remote sensing, based on satellite data, is useful in studying rice crops for their several parameters such as cropped area, crop-coverage, growth stages, production, yield estimation and other statistics useful in scientific investigations. Despite some satellite-remote-sensing based researches have been reported in the country, such appliance in agricultural studies is very sparse in Nepal. In the current situation, Nepal could benefit from remote sensing technology for betterment of its agricultural planning and development specifically in the rice sub-sector for its national economic and food security importance. This review article is an attempt to highlight the importance of rice remote sensing in Nepal and list research articles in the field as bookmarks to benefit future rice researchers and interested readership.</p> Keshav Thapa Magar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 219 224 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58193 Screenhouse Evaluation of the Fungicides and Bio-Control Agents for the Management of Fusarium Wilt (Foc Race 1) of Banana in Nepal <p>Banana is affected by a wide number of diseases, of which, Fusarium wilt caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>cubense</em> has played a major role in devastating Malbhog (Silk) banana plantations in Nepal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the commonly available fungicides (Carbendazim 50%, Fenamidone 10%+ Mancozeb 50%, Chlorothalonil and biocontrol agents (Trichoderma sps., <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> and Pseudomonas species) for their efficacy against Foc. The effectiveness of fungicides and biocontrol agents to Foc was examined in screenhouse. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications and eight treatments. Among the chemicals, the most effective fungicide to reduce Fusarium wilt severity (root disease) was Bavistin with an efficacy of 55.33% followed by Sectin 46.33% and Chlorothalonil 35%. Similarly, maximum efficacy over control was recorded in Trichoderma harzianum with 41% and lowest was 32% in Pseudomonas sp. In the case of leaf disease, the lowest severity was 21.33% recorded in Bavistin and highest was 40.33% in Chlorothalonil. Similarly, among biocontrol agents, the lowest severity was found in <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> whereas highest was found in <em>Trichoderma viride</em>. A Suppression of disease by biocontrol agents might be due to their fungicidal activity, which means they produce a variety of antifungal compounds. These compounds induce plant defense mechanisms. Further field evaluations of the fungicides and biocontrol agents are required to determine if the effect observed in the screenhouse can be integrated into field management of Fusarium wilt.</p> Bimala Pant Prem Bahadur Magar Chetana Manandhar Shrinkhala Manandhar Ram Bahadur Khadka Pratiksha Sharma Ganga G.C. Suraj Baidya Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 225 233 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58195 Strengthening Food Safety Governance in Nepal through Collaborative Capacity Development and Private Sector Engagement <p>This article discusses the policy and regulatory challenges faced by Nepal in strengthening food safety governance and the potential solutions to address them. Capacity building through training programs and technical assistance, regional collaboration, and private sector engagement are the key strategies identified for improving food safety standards in the country. The article highlights the need for a comprehensive legal framework and the establishment of a centralized food safety authority in Nepal. The challenges faced by the private sector in complying with food safety standards are also discussed, particularly the difficulties faced by small and medium-sized enterprises. The potential benefits of regional collaboration in the food sector, including the harmonization of food standards, the development of regional frameworks for food safety based on the Codex, and the creation of a regional food safety rapid alert system, are also examined. The article concludes that addressing policy and regulatory challenges through capacity building, regional collaboration, and private sector engagement can lead to improved food safety governance in Nepal and help the country to overcome its food safety challenges.</p> Prateek Joshi Sanjeev Kumar Karn Pramod Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 235 242 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58197 Sustainable Rice Industry in Nepal: Comparative Analysis with South Asia <p>Rice, a prime crop in Nepal and other South Asian nations, plays a crucial role in ensuring food security and socio-economic development. In Nepal’s agricultural sector, rice accounts for the largest share of the Agricultural Gross Domestic Product (AGDP), comprising approximately 20%. However, the absence of appropriate policies poses a significant challenge to the sustainable production of rice in Nepal. This study aims to assess the various policy dimensions of the sustainable rice industry in Nepal and compare them with the policy implications in neighboring South Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The study draws on secondary sources of information for its analysis. The findings reveal that Nepal lacks a comprehensive rice policy, while its existing agriculture policy is characterized by confusion and contradictions. To attain self-sufficiency in food production, it is imperative to establish a comprehensive rice policy in Nepal and implement price subsidies on diverse inputs, as observed in neighboring countries which will ultimately contribute to enhancing the sustainability of the rice industry and promote the goal of food self-sufficiency in Nepal.</p> Pradyumna Raj Pandey Hemprabha Pandey Aashish Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 243 249 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58199 Time of Harvest as the Determinant of Dry Matter Productivity and Chemical Composition of Field Pea (Pisum sativum) and Oat (Avena sativa) and their Mixture in the Abandoned Lands of Subtropical Terai Nepal <p>The grass-legume mixture formulation is an important criterion to improve biomass availability with an improved balance of the nutritive components. The objective ofthis reseach was to determine the yield and forage quality traits (green fodder yield, dry matter yield) and chemical composition (protein, fibre and mineral contents) of field pea (<em>Pisum sativum</em>) and oat (<em>Avena sativa</em>) and their mixtures under subtropical conditions. The experiment was performed over 4 months (December 2018 to March 2019) at Agriculture and Forestry University Livestock Farm, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, using four different treatment mixture rates of pea and oat crops. Treatments were; treatment-1 - 100% Pea+0% Oat, treatment-2 - 75% Pea+25% Oat, treatment-3 -50% Pea+50% Oat and treatment-4 - 25% Pea+75% Oat) and samples were collected in three different cutting stages (the jointing stage of oat, the stage oat in scabbard and milk dough stage of oat). The plant height was affected by the growing days while the tillers and branches in peas respectively were affected by both the time of harvest and the seed proportions. According to the results, it is suggested that the highest dry matter productivity was observed in 75% pea mix with 25% oat in the 3rd harvest, followed by 75% oat mix with 25% pea in the 3rd harvest. As well as, within intercrops, the best protein yield was obtained in a 50% oat mix with 50% pea (16.73%) at 1st harvest oat-pea intercropping. Besides, the pea + oat mixture should be harvested at the milk-dough stage of oat for better protein content and to increase the nutritive value of forage.</p> Shanker Raj Barsila Ram Bahadur Bogati Dawa Tshiring Tamang Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 251 261 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58200 Trichoderma: its Ecophysiology, Mechanism of Biocontrol and Application Methods <p>Chemically managed plants impose environmental risks to humans and environment. Using biological approaches to control plant diseases is a more effective and environment friendly alternative. The biological approach to plant disease refers to controlling disease by using organisms like fungi, bacteria and viruses. This can be done by introduction or utilization of resident antagonistic living organisms. Biological control can be achieved through different forms of interactions between organisms and the interactions includes hyperparasitism, antibiosis, commensalism, neutralism, and competition. Various biocontrol agents commonly used against plant pathogens are <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em>, <em>Trichoderma hamatum</em>, <em>Trichoderma viride</em>, <em>Trichoderma koningii</em>, <em>Gliocladium virens</em>, <em>Gliocladium roseum</em>, <em>Paecilomyces liiacinus</em>,<em> Coniothyrum minitans</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Bacillus polymyxa</em>, and <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em>.</p> Pratistha Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 263 276 10.3126/aej.v24i01.58203